William Paley-Known for the teleological argument for the existence of God. The
teleological argument is that of design. That the complexities of life are too great to not
have a prime mover or an omnipotent God.
Unmoved Mover- Described by Aristotle to explain metaphysics, described as being
perfectly beautiful, indivisible and contemplating only the perfect contemplation.
Essentially one of the first thoughts of what God may be.
Fallacy of Composition- A hasty generalization, the idea is that the fallacy of
composition is that of atoms in a table. It must be an illusion that we can see the table
because it is illogical that something that is not invisible can be comprised of that
which is invisible. But this is not the case. Easy example if a runner runs faster, she can
win the race. Therefore if all the runners run faster, they can all win the race.
Kalam Cosmological Argument-
1. Everything that has a beginning of its existence has a cause of its existence;
2. The universe has a beginning of its existence;
3. The universe has a cause of its existence.
Objective Moral Values-Objective moral values are moral values that are true
independent of the belief of human beings. In relation to the course the question arises
does one truly have objective moral values? If Nazi Germany claims that the holocaust
is good then objectively for them it was good etc.
Irrational Fideism- exclusive or basic reliance upon faith alone accompanied by a
consequent disparagement of reason and utilized especially in the pursuit of
philosophical or religious truth. Fait and reason are incompatible.
Physiological Criterion- the idea that at the point of resurrection we will not have the
same body. This idea was claimed by Locke. The perception is that consciousness is
the continual entity of humans. Sufficient Evidence- besides the obvious all I can think is to apply it to the course.
Ruling a concept entirely out due to a lack of sufficient evidence.
Pascal’s Wager- suggests that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or
does not exist. Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the
infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person
should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not actually
exist, such a person will have only a finite loss (some pleasures, luxury, whatever.
William James- notable for The Sanscrit Language (1786) he suggested that all three
languages had a common root, and that indeed they may all be further related, in turn,
to Gothic and the Celtic languages, as well as to Persian.
Faith-What distinguishes faith from other forms of belief is the source of or basis for,
the assent we give to a proposition.
Principle of Credulity- states that if it seems to a subject that x is present, and then x is
probably present. Generally it means it is reasonable to believe that the world is at it
seems when we look at it.
Blind Men and the Elephant- tells a story of blind men walking an elephant. It
originated in India as a means of displaying truths and fallacies. At the time it was a
valuable source of insight to relativism
Laplace’s Demon- Pierre-Simon Laplace wrote the philosophical essay on
probabilities, and his demon is the first published articulation of casual scientific
determinism. In English this mean according to determinism if someone knows every
precise location and momentum of every atom in the universe, their past and future
values for any given time are entailed and can be calculated.
Descartes’ Demon- known for skepticism in his philosophies, and states that all one
knows for sure is that they exist (I think therefore I am). All else can conceivably be
the result from an evil demon who just wants to mess with us. The one thing that
cannot be refuted is that fact that one has thought.
Arthur Eddington-Author of the Nature of the Physical World- and the Two Tables
Two Tables- essentially the complex of uncertainty, familiarity creates identity to us as
humans. Direct Realism-We perceive ordinary physical objects, which exist independently of
our perception of them.
Representational Theory- We perceive sense-data, which cannot exist apart from our
awareness of them. a) in perception, we are directly aware of sense-data
b) By inference from sense-data, we are indirectly aware of the external objects
Phenomenalism-a form of reductionism, tables and trees do not exist, but they do exist
external in our minds- they are the images in our mind.
Naïve Realism- see direct realism.
Justified True Belief- Plato initiated; the concept of JTB states that in order to know
that a given proposition is true, one must not only believe the relevant true proposition,
but one must also have justification for doing so.
Rationalist Justification- the idea that which is justified based on rationale is relevant to
Modus Ponens- While modus ponens is one of the most commonly used concepts in
logic it must not be mistaken for a logical law; rather, it is one of the accepted
mechanisms for the construction of deductive proofs that includes the "rule of
definition" and the "rule of substitution"
Modus Tollens- the evidence of absence. The argument has two premises. The first
premise is a conditional or "if-then" statement, for example that if P then Q. The
second premise is that it is not the case that Q . From these two premises, it can be
logically concluded that it