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Lecture 11

PS102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Jane Goodall, Observer-Expectancy Effect, Hawthorne Effect

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Eileen Wood

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The Science of Psychology
Methods of Study: Descriptive
1. Naturalistic (eg. Jane Goodall, watching what they do, real environment,
problems like weather)
2. Laboratory (watching from other side of glass in lab, at your convenience,
more control but can still be natural)
3. Case Study (H.M had memory part of brain removed, not a good result so only
done once, watched him and learned about memory, could have 1 person, or 4
or 5 people, any unique or particular community, only a few people who fit
criteria, describe and look for commonalities)
Limitations of Descriptive Methods
Naturalistic Observations → have to wait for event to happen, observer bias
Laboratory Observations → loss of spontaneity, same as above
Case Studies → limited sample size, low generalizability, observer bias
Hawthorne Effect → change the way you act if you are in a study and are being
In correlations and descriptions, we cannot confirm cause and effect
Research Question
Cause and Effect
Does multitasking with technology in class reduce grades?
Do mothers and fathers engage equally in gender stereotyped play with their
Does answering why questions while studying from text improve grades?
The Experiment: Variables
Independent (variable that experimenter controls, changes amongst groups)
Dependent (variable that is measured)
Extraneous (variables that were not planned, happens to one group but not other)
Design Concerns
Selection bias (cure: random sampling/random assignment)
Experimenter bias (cure: double blind)
Placebo (cure: exposure control group)
Analyzing Data → two kinds of statistics
Descriptive (observations)
Used to give basic information about what we find
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