PS102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Object Permanence, Egocentrism, Information Processing

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16 Jan 2016
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Lecture 4 – Thursday January 14, 2016
Cognitive Development
Piaget
Children are not ‘adults in miniature’
oThinking changes ‘qualitatively’
oNatural-born “scientists”
oActively explore and seek to understand their world
Piaget’s Stage Model
Brain builds schemas/mental structures to achieve
understanding
Schemas are modi&ed to create equilibrium between
environment and understanding
Equilibration
Piaget proposed that we have two mechanisms that need to
reach equilibrium in order to build schemas
oAssimilation
New experiences incorporated into existing schemas
Ex. child knows what a bird is, they see a hawk and
have to include that into the bird category
oAccommodation
New experiences cause existing schemas to change
Ex. child sees a bat, has to learn they’re not birds,
but mammals
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor stage
oBirth to age 2
o“Here and now” rather than past and future
oExploration through moving and sensing
oObject permanence
Preoperational Stage
o2-6 years
oLanguage acquisition
oEgocentrism
oIllogical reasoning
Concrete operational stage
o6-12 years
oLogical reasoning
oMastery of conservation problems
o“Learn by doing”
Formal operational stage
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