PS268 Lecture Notes - Morphine, Hectare, Central Nervous System

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
Drugs and behavior: Text Book
Supplement Notes
Midterm two: chapters 6, 10, 15
Chapter 6: Stimulants
Central nervous system stimulant
o Creates intense feelings of pleasure, increases alertness, and
decreases appetite and the need for sleep
o 500BCE: inca empire first to use coca
o coca: a bush that grows in the Andes and produces cocaine
o cocaine: the active chemical in the coca plant
o natives of the andes mountains in Bolivia and peru still use coca
chew the leaves and holding a ball of it in their mouth
freedom of fatigue allows them to run or carry large bundles
up the mountains
Psychoactive effects can be made stronger by adding some
calcified lime to raise the alkalinity inside the mouth, this
allows greater extraction of the cocaine and allows greater
absorption into the blood supplying the mouth.
the terrain poor for growing everything except erythroxylon
600-2400metres, on the amazon slope
shrub pruned to prevent it from reaching normal
height, so that picking is easier
grown in small one hectare patches: cocals
was used mostly religiously, was treated as money
Spanish paid with coca leaves to labourers
Coca leaf recognized as increasing strength and endurance,
and decreasing hunger
Coca wine
o Angelo Mariani
Introduced the coca leaf to the public
Wine made him famous, the pope gave him a medal of
Local Anesthesia
o Karl Koller
Introduced cocaine as a local anaesthetic for eye surgery
Had first tested chloral hydrate and morpheine
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