Class Notes (835,108)
Canada (508,934)
Psychology (2,787)
PS101 (736)
Eileen Wood (199)

Chapter 12 Notes Notes on chapter 12 in point form

20 Pages
Unlock Document

Eileen Wood

Psychology Study Notes: Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research and Assessment By: Yen Hoang The Nature of Personality: Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness o The concept of personality is used to explain: The stability in a persons behavior over time and across situations (consistency) The behavioural differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness) o Personality refers to an individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions: o A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations o Factor analysis: correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables If the measurements of a number of variables (ie personality traits) correlate highly with one another, the assumption is that a single factor is influencing all of them Its used to identify these hidden factors In factor analyses of personality traits, these hidden factors are viewed as very basic, higher-order traits that determine less basic, more specific traits Cattell concluded that an individuals personality can be described completely by measuring just 16 traits The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits: o McCrae and Costa have used factor analysis to arrive at a five-factor model They maintain that most personality traits are derived from just 5 higher order traits that are known as the big five: Extraversion: o People who score high in extraversion are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive and gregarious o Referred to as positive emotionality in some trait models o Its been studied extensively in research for many decades Neuroticism: o People who score high in neuroticism tend to be anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure and vulnerable o This trait has been the subject of thousands of studies o Those who score high in neuroticism tend to overreact more in response to stress than others Openness to experience: o Openness is associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity and unconventional attitudes o McCrae maintains that its importance has been underestimated Citing evidence that openness fosters liberalism He argues that this trait is the key determinant of peoples political attitudes and ideology Agreeableness: o Those who score high in agreeableness tend to be sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest and straightforward o People who score high at the opposite end of this personality dimension are characterized as suspicious, antagonistic and aggressive o Agreeableness is associated with constructive approaches to conflict resolution, making agreeable people less quarrelsome than others Conscientiousness: o Conscientious people tend to be diligent, disciplined, well- organized, punctual and dependable o Referred to as constraint in some trait models o Conscientiousness is associated with being highly diligent in the workplace The five-factor model has become the dominant conception of personality structure in contemporary psychology These five traits have been characterized as the latitude and longitude along which personality should be mapped o Theres also criticism with this model, therefore, its not completely accepted o Personality theories: Psychodynamic perspectives Behavioural perspectives Humanistic perspectives Biological perspectives Psychodynamic Perspectives: Psychodynamic theories include all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud which focus on unconscious mental forces Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory: o He developed a procedure called psychoanalysis Involved lengthy verbal interactions with patients during which Freud probed deeply into their lives o His theory grew out of his decades of interactions with his clients in psychoanalysis o His theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges Most of his contemporaries were uncomfortable with his theory for at leas three reasons: By arguing that peoples behavior is governed by unconscious factors of which they are unaware, Freud made the disconcerting suggestion that individuals are not masters of their own minds In claiming that adult personalities are shaped by childhood experiences and other factors beyond ones control, he suggested that people are not masters of their own destinies By emphasizing the great importance of how people cope with their sexual urges, he offended those who held the conservative, Victorian values of his time o Structure of Personality: Freud divided personality structure into three components: Id is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principal o Freud referred to the id as the reservoir of psychic energy He meant that the id houses the raw biological urges that energize human behaviour Eating, sleeping, defecate, etc o The pleasure principal demands immediate gratification of its urges o The id engages in primary process thinking which is primitive, illogical, irrational and fantasy-oriented Ego is the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principal o The ego mediates between the id with its forceful desires for immediate satisfaction and the external social world, with its expectations and norms regarding suitable behavior o It considers social realities in deciding how to behave Societys norms Etiquette Rules Customs o The reality principal seeks to delay gratification of the ids urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found o In short, the ego often works to tame the unbridled desires of the id o In the long run, the ego wants to maximize gratification just as the id does o The ego engages in secondary process thinking which is relatively rational, realistic and oriented toward problem solving Therefore, the ego strives to avoid negative consequences from society and its representatives (ie punishment by parents or teachers) by behaving properly o It also attempts to achieve long range goals that sometimes require putting off gratification Superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong o People receive training about what constitutes good and bad behavior, especially during childhood o Many social norms regarding moralit
More Less

Related notes for PS101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.