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Lecture 10

PS102 Lecture 10: Chapter 10 PS102

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Erin Strahan

Intelligence Video: 6 people have come together who are completely different to see who is the most intelligent out them all. ∞ Genes are a big part of intelligence ∞ One of them doesn’t have as much brain matter as some high IQ college students. He doesn’t use as much brain matter but solutions to problems come automatically Definition of intelligence: Problem-solving ability, abstract thinking, bodily kinesthetic, emotional intelligence, and having a wide range abilities.(There is a discussion on whether intelligence is based on one construct or a wide range of different constructs) The Structure of Intelligence ∞ General factor (‘g’): A common factor representing abstract reasoning power that underlies a wide variety of test items. ∞ Specific factor (‘s’): A mental ability factor that is unique to a task. • If one were trying to remember numbers, G would mostly be used, and some of s. Multiple Intelligences (verbal linguistic, bodily kinesthetic, musical rhythmic, intrapersonal, naturalistic, logical- mathematic interpersonal, and visual spatial) Emotional Intelligence: ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion and regulate emotion (they understand others and themselves very well, they don’t let emotions judge their decisions; it doesn’t get in the way. Those who do not have this, aren’t able to deal well with emotions they’re having) Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory ∞ Intelligence is made up of three interacting components: 1. Analytical (internal processes when we think about something: abstract thinking, analyzing things) ▪ Most related to traditional IQ tests. 2. Creative (external) (ability to generate new idea) 3. Practical (experiential: ability to use the things we learn in every day context. E.g.: are you able to fix this table even though you never have before?) ▪ Helps us to adapt to our environment Measuring Intelligence ∞ Binet believed we should measure a child’s mental age. Mental age: level of how a child performs intellectually, compared to the average intellectual performance for that physical age. (He did this by studying intelligent children in the public school system) ∞ Binet and Simon developed a test which measured memory, vocabulary, and perceptual discrimination ∞ Mental age was divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 to get a IQ or intelligent quotient score ∞ Now IQ scores are derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests ∞ Once you get to a certain age you cant use this method anymore. There isn’t a big difference between 25 and 25 year olds. Measuring Intelligence NOW: ∞ IQ scores are distributed “normally” • Bell-shaped curve (most people score within the middle or mean) ∞ Very high and low scores are rare ∞ 68% of people have IQ between 85-115 • 99.7% between 55-145 These tests have to be: ∞ Reliability ∞ Consistency of scores derived from a test from one time and place to another (The test that you’re given has to show consistency, the numbers can’t be different with the same person taking it) ∞ Test-retest reliability: give the same test twice to the same people and compare the two sets of scores ∞ Alternate-forms reliability: give different versions of the same test to the same group on separate occasions (measuring the same tests but different questions in some way) ∞ Validity ∞ The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure (in psychology we try to study things that are really hard to study, you have to develop good measures of certain constructs.) In validity you have to make sure you are measuring what you wanted to measure in the first place; create a scale that measures the construct you are trying to measure. ∞ Content validity: degree to which the content of a test accurately represents what the test is intended to measure ∞ Predictive Validity: the extent to which scores on a particular test predict the things it is supposed to predict. (Body dissatisfaction: if measured well, it should tell me something about the person’s behaviour. E.g.: self- conscious, and not being able to wear a bathing suit in public) Measuring Intelligence ∞ Wechsler Intelligence Scale: An individually administered intelligence test that includes a measure of general intelligence and a variety of verbal and nonverbal performance scores. (Has been used with non-English speaking children. Children who are unable to speak are also able to do this test) Do IQ Tests have Adequate Reliability? ∞ IQ tests are very reliable (estimates in the .90 range, which is very high) ∞ Things can affect how people score on a test that doesn’t have to do directly with the reliability of it (a child’s motivation and anxiety). Low motivation and high anxiety at a particular testing can influence scores Do IQ Tests have Adequate Validity? ∞ Verbal intelligence: • Speaks clearly and articulately, • Is verbally fluent, • Is knowledgeable about a particular field, and • Reads with high comprehension ∞ Practical intelligence: • People who score high in practical intelligence tests see all aspects of a problem, • Sizes up situations well, • Makes good decisions, and • Poses problems in an optimal way ∞ Social intelligence: • People who score high in these tests accept others for what they are, • Has a social conscience, • Thinks before speaking and doing, and • Is sensitive to other people’s needs and desires Do IQ Tests have Adequate Validity? ∞ IQ tests are valid measures of a certain type of intelligence: • People are intelligent in different ways • Type of intelligence related to academic competence Are Individual’s IQ Scores Stable over Time? ∞ Early IQ scores (under age 7) are not good predictors of later IQ scores • Before age 7, the scores are not stable, they do however, ∞ Become relatively stable between 7-10 years of age ∞ Accurate predictor of IQ scores at age 18 Intelligence and Achievement ∞ IQ as a Predictor of Academic Achievement ∞ Intelligence tests predict academic achievement. Children with higher IQs get better grades+stay in school longer Intelligence and Achievement ∞ IQ as a Predictor of Occupational Attainment
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