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Chapter 9.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Mindi Foster

Chapter 9 - Intelligence Measurement in psychological testing  Standardization  refers to the fact that when you give a test, the questions must given all in the same manner of instructions and environment; uniform testing procedures and scoring based on a uniform set of questions. Ex, intelligence testing o Norms  are able to run tests on large populations that are representative of the total population in order to compare individuals o Percentiles  the percent of people who achieve at or below your score. The score they give you does not mean that you received that mark on the test  Reliability  does the test measure the same concept consistently o Test-retest  talks about whether the test gives you the same score at one time or at a different time. If the scores are correlating at time one and time two then you know you have a consistent test o Split-half  you take half of the items on the test and compare them with the other half to see if they correlate, a strong correlation means a good reliability o Alpha  measure of reliability, an alpha of about 0.7 is good on a test, is acceptable  Validity  is the test measuring the concept accurately o Content  on the face of it, does it look like it is measuring the concept o Criterion  does it predict related constructs? o Construct  is it related to similar scales Types of Intelligence : General versus specific  General (g factor) o Fluid  reasoning, memory, information processing. These are things the theoretically effecting everything that you do o Crystallized  the application of new knowledge to multiple sources, problem solving, you are able to apply content knowledge to more then one area of practice. o Biological  measure o Reaction time  how quickly you process information, only predicts about 5 to 9% of IQ performance  Specific o Thurstone’s primary mental abilities  word fluency, verbal comprehension, math, reasoning o Gardner’s 8 intelligences  intelligence in: music, spacial, bodily or kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal o Emotional Intelligence Triarchic Theory  theorizes about the processes involved in different types of intelligence  IQ involves context, experience and involves specific components  Context: adapting to new environments  Experience: we apply new information to old experiences or concepts  IQ involves: o Acquiring knowledge o The ability to perform, performance o Management of the first two  Ex. Enhancing study skills o Three facets of intelligence  Practical intelligence  street smart  Analytical intelligence  reasoning, book smart  Creative intelligence  generate new ideas Intelligence Testing History  Senesations  mental age  IQ (mental/chronological x 100) Deviation IQ scores o Sensations  sensitivity to stimuli, reaction time o Mental age  Binet refered to mental age, a mental ability typical of a particular chronological age.  Ex. An 8 year old with a mental age of six is performing at the six year old level o IQ  Formula = mental age/chronological age/100  Strength: allowed for comparison  Ex. 30 years old/ 30 year old x 100 = 100  Ex. 30 year old/60 years old x 100 = 50  This looks as if the adults IQ is going down  The weakness of this score is that the measurement for adults is inaccurate o Deviation IQ scores  converts score to a standard deviation Content  Question types o Language, math, reasoning o These questions have been formulated n the West. Most immigrants were considered feeble minded as a result of the discrimination of certain ethnic groups as some may not understand if the culture does not practice the same testing styles or the same content  Aptitude vs. achievement o Potential to learn (Aptitude) o These tests that are supposed to be aptitude tests, instead test achievement, knowledge o The knowledge that you choose to include in the aptitude test is based on what you consider knowledge  There is bias  It is hard to create an aptitude test that does not include knowledge tests (culturual bias occurs) Measurement  Reliability  alpha = 0.9’s (a type of strong, positive correlation) o This means that the IQ test is consistently measuring something o Anixety does interfere with test retest  Validity o Academic success  Yes it does so moderately, correlations range around the 0.4 – 0.5 range of IQ and grades, IQ and years in school completed o Vocational Su
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