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Lecture 3

jan20_PS_271 (week 3)

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Colleen Loomis

Brief review on Freud -id = impulses, superego = society’s norms -we may have desires but then repress them based on societal norms -ego = in the middle -role is to resolve clashes between id & superego -sublimation: take id impulses, channel them into creative area -different from deflection, redirecting urges -2 structures that come from Freud’s contribution -unconscious/conscious -id/ego/superego -limitations of Freud’s work -difficult to test – how do we get to id/unconscious levels? -Freud suggested looking at symbols -Freud critiqued due to: -sexual focus -focus on negativity – death, struggles, conflict -conflict such as a person who is abusive, but who also has wonderful qualities -goal is to integrate any conflicts -psychodynamic – always in motion Carl Rogers -religious background -brings optimism, hope -reading – therapy – reprint from 1957 -how can we have therapy to change personality? -is it possible, or are we born with a certain personality? -we are born with a temperament, but personality characteristics & traits can be changed over time -article is very clear and balanced – not selling one idea without testing opposing hypotheses -6 conditions: 1. 2 people in psychological contact 2. client in state of incongruence -conflict of some kind, presenting vulnerable/anxious feelings 3. therapist – congruent or integrated 4. unconditional positive regard 5. empathic 6. minimal degree of effective communication -conditions, hypotheses, implications -implications: -the success of the therapeutic approach does not depend on the type of client -neurotic: dreams of castles in the sky; psychotic: lives in castles in the sky -one truly believes it Take-away points from article -1. Can work with any type of client -2. Can work with different types of therapy -3. Not a “special” kind of relationship; not different from relationships in everyday life -however, in everyday life we cannot maintain all conditions all the time – therapist is in a better position to maintain conditions (e.g. 1 hour every week) -4. Don’t need particular intellectual knowledge (e.g. specific psychological knowledge) -5. Don’t need an accurate psychological diagnosis for this therapeutic approach to changing personality to work -e.g. don’t need to know client is diagnosed with certain disorder -style of article: written the way a discussion should be written -great example of theoretical paper – presents both sides ***hint for group paper: give an even-handed argument; “If I’m right in x conclusion, this is what would happen. If I’m wrong, this is what would happen.” -no unfounded/unrationalized opinions – must be cited/supported in literature -Rogers’ caution: even if this were to be applied to certain programs which aim toward constructive changes, this formulation may serve as very tentative criterion -if you don’t have any concrete evidence for what you’re saying, use “may” -e.g. “This may indicate a relationship between x and y” -denial, pr
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