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Introduction to Judaism - Lecture 22

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Religion & Culture
Holly Pearse

RE204 – Lecture 22  The Holocaust o naming the destruction  holocaust; churban (churban europa); shoah  holocaust - holy offering  churban europa - Yiddish term (1947) o churban - destruction o last used for destruction of second temple  shoah - Hebrew calamity / catastrophe o can appear as "ha shoah"  parajmos - devouring o Romani / gypsies o timeline of the war against the Jews  1933-38 : initial phase  1933 : Hitler in power  1935 : Nuremberg laws o represent reversal of emancipation in Germany  1938-41 : resettlement phase  38 - kristallnacht (7 November)  39 - occupation of Poland, WW2 begins o acquired German Jews, Poland was safe haven o German army did not like the polish pocket of Jews o deportation of Jews from Europe (intended to deport to Madagascar, but did not deport) o 40-45 : ghetto period; slave labour  extensive slave labour a result of the large increase of Jewish population  41-45 : "final solution" phase  44-45 : death marches; camps gradually liberated o fallout  ca. 11-17+ millions murdered  ca. 5-6 million Jews killed o ca. 1 million Jewish children murdered  initial impacts o loss of six million Jews  loss authority/elders o decentralization of cultural centres and locations of authority/culture  initiated decentralization, loss of y'shivas  beginning of the end of Yiddish  understood as a ghetto language  with loss of large polish Jews, Yiddish began dying out  survives in America (transplanted culture) o rise of new centres  more important after the holocaust  America  became a major voice in Judaism after holocaust  Israel, est. 1948  Cultural Impacts o cultural displacement 1 RE204 – Lecture 22  shifting voices o cultural/religious judaism  new texts, sacred and secular o identity  will to endure  becomes negative way to view life  defining Jewishness o more mixing/discussion between Jews of different customs o European Jews had divide between east/west  Ostjuden - eastern Jews  mystery to western Jews  Judaism, Memory and Survival o judaism as memory  role of memory that runs throughout Jewish history/diaspora  if judaism is to survive, then memories must be protected  memory embedded in judaism, an obligation  remember the Sabbath  active remembrance  Zakhor and obligation  Zakhor - responsibility of memory, active memory, do something once remembered  Yad va Shem o sums up active memory o Isaiah 56.5 o place and a name o holocaust museum/memorial in Israel  614th commandment  cataclysm - holocaust is considered one o the after effects are different from the past  place of national tragedy in Judaism  runnin
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