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ADMS 3410 (9)

Training and Development Lecture notes

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 3410
Ken Mc Bey

Training and Development 1/4/2013 8:54:00 PM Training  Focus on learning organizational specific KSAs (Knowledge, skils and abilities) for current or impending jobs/tasks Development  Acquiring KSAs for job/tasks Education  Individual rather than organizationally-focused  More macro and broad-based, focused upon enhancing critical thinking, effective evaluation and communication etc.  Wider applicability to work and non-work setting Training and development importance  Societal o Flexible highly trained workforce that provides to the economy. Allows economy to be strong, flexible and fits across the nation  Organizational o One that’s are productivity, high performance levels and enhance worker retention because workers understand the orgs are interested in investing SK for the future o Public – needs of the citizens are meet  Individuals o Undergo TD, learn new knowledge and skills, improved employment prospects, standards of living, sense of personal competency Strategic Model of training and development  Environmental Analysis SWOT and o Examinations of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; legal constraints; competitive environment; technology; national; international  Business strategy which leads to o Overall strategy; macro level o Subset (HRM)  HRM strategy  Learning/training strategy which drives  Training and development programs o Each program has a specific goal and program o NEEDS analysis is made to determine the goals of each specific program Systems Framework  Inputs o Eg. People/employees, budgets and resources, equipment, trainers, technology, organizational needs, etc. o Inputs to the process  Through-puts/transformation o Needs analysis, training design and planning, methods & implementation, training evaluation and feedback/revision etc. o Organizational training design and delivery occurs o Designs/methods is determined through NEEDS analysis  Outputs o Transfer of training, knowledge, skills performance, empowerment, satisfaction o Individual and organizational (reward) o Qualitative and quantitative (how well made ___ is ) o Soft (perceptions, feelings) and hard (objective) criteria (units produced, number of outputs) Training and development sequence -steps for proper analysis  Issue/problem o Eg performance gap (difference between expected performance and actual performance) o Not sure why this occurs but we then do a ….  Needs analysis o Organizational analysis o Task analysis o person analyses  Training design & development o Objectives and learning dimensions o W5h, content and selected training methods  Who what where when why and how (who will training who needs to be train, what needs to be trained, when does it need to be trained, how (training methods)  Delivery/implementation  Training evaluation o Process, criteria and methods  Combination of methods? Which methods?  Feedback/revision o Goes to HR specialists and trainers and allows them to revise in order to improve effectiveness Issues and problems in training and development  Many organizational still view training as an discretionary expense rather than an investment o Workers have not received the KSA needed  Demographics of developed countries o Lower birth rates, aging populations o Labour supply issues for organizations  Different groups of PT FT and contigent,; more problems for us in terms of training  Life Long Work & Life Long Learning o The end of mandatory retirement  People are working more (older people)  Changing perspectives on careers and personal values re: work and its role in life  Diversity in the workplace  Globalization and cross-cultural perspectives  Rate of technological & societal change o Ppl are working abroad, through technology etc..  Change. o Rate of change in terms of technology is HUGE o People are surrounding themselves with machinery o NEED for training has really stepped up in terms of training and development environment Learning and Motivation 1/4/2013 8:54:00 PM  Organizational learning – creating, sharing, diffusing and apply knowledge in organizations (overall a macro concept)  Training – focuses upon employees acquiring organizations and job- specific KSAS for current jobs (micro concept, focuses on CURRENT jobs)  Development – KSA acquisition for the future  Learning and training occur formally and informally (informally is more common)  learning outcomes schemas o Knowledge/cognitive (what you know and mentally processes) o Skills (motor skills, what can you do) o Affective/affective/attitudinal (how you feel towards something) OR  Gagne’s 5 categories for learning outcomes o Cognitive strategies (mental strategies; framework to allow us to hold knowledge and use it) o Verbal (verbal outcome, speak and articulate) o Intellectual skills (using cognitive processes like math) o Motor skills (behaving etc) o Attitudes (how you feel towards or against something)  Four styles of learning o Concrete learning (the experience of something) o Reflective observation (observe what happens; reflect) o Abstract conceptualization (developing different hypothesis of something might be done; theorizing of doing something or acquiring knowledge) o Active experimentation (learning by doing the job in different ways)  Individuals sense and assimilate through o Visual (seeing) o Aural (hearing) o Reading and writing o Kinesthetic (hands on or tinkering with things)  Learning sequence (micro) Gagnes. o Gaining attention (trainees) o Describe training objectives (by training) o Recall prior knowledge/learning (tie back) o Present material to be learned o Provide a ‘fit’ or context for the new material (to trainees) o Practice performance o Provide feedback o Assess performance o Enhance retention and training transfer  Motivation o Relates to the effort expended and persistence of an individual in pursuit of a specific goal or outcome (learner must be motivated to learn) o Motivation is internal and individual specific o Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation  Instrinsic is from within you  Extrinsic motivation praised by family  Elements influencing motivation o Peer and supervisor support (supportive? Against it?) o Supportive org climate/context (supportive? Can we time off? Can we study there?) o Self-efficacy (ind believes he or she will be successful) o Stress levels/anxiety (distracted and cannot learn to the same degree) o Reward systems (motivated)  Motivation theories o Individual is motivated to act to meet unmet needs o Maslows hierarchy of needs  Progressing from physiological, to safety, belonging, esteem and self-actualization  Low to high needs; motivated by needs that are unmet; once met, it no longer motivates you; For food for water, you don’t have that nothing else matters, then on to next one  Physiological, safety, love, esteem, self actualization o Alderfer’s ERG  Similar  Existence (physiological), Relatedness (belong and esteem), growth needs (self actualization) o Expectancy Theory (VROOM)  Ind. Motivation (expend and sustain effort) is an interaction of 3 factors  Expectancy  Ind. Perception of the probability of a successful outcome if effort is expended (if I make the effort, will I be successful)  Instrumentality  Individual perception of the probability/likelihood of receiving associated rewards if he/she is successful in achieving outcome (if I’m successful what’s the likihood I’m going to receive rewards)  Valence  Value or attractiveness of the associated rewards to a specific individual (range: positive to negative) [if I make the effort and I’m successful and I get rewards, are these rewards from my outcome are they attractive to me or valid to me]  Self efficacy o Belief that one can and will perform successfully o Strong associated with motivation o Affected by:  Previous experiences and consequences (if u were successful and rewarded, if u failed and the consequences weren’t that bad, that necessarily does not have a big impact on self efficacy)  Feedback from others (direct and indirect)  Self-esteem and personal physical and emotional state etc. (tired emotionally, physical issues they affect your belief) Lecture 3 1/4/2013 8:54:00 PM Individual Performance function of  KSAOs  Motivation (what you know, what your able to do)  Contextual/environmental (factors at your work? External, internal) Performance problems  Personal/human issues (power and politics; fatigue)  Structural (Policies)  Information (are we given enough information; is it correct)  Technology/machinery (what is the interface between worker and technology; is there problems?) Performance gap  Difference between actual and expected performance standards  Is a PROBLEM  The categories below are addressed in a NEEDS analysis KSA Deficiency>  T&D invention  Coaching and counseling  Transfers and termination Environmental obstacle?  Work, structural and/or technological re-design o Outdated procedure? o Technology problems?  HR issues ‘toxic’ boss or co-worker o Understaffing  Can lead to stress Misdirected incentives and sanctions?  Modify compensation /rewards system Lack of knowledge re: Expected performance standards  Feedback and communication IS KEY  They don’t know procedures and standards Need Analysis  Organizational (and team)  Task/work/job  PERSON Organizational Analysis  Strategic objectives  Budget and resources  Reward systems  Social/group factors  Rules-procedures etc. Task analysis  Responsibility/accountability  Effort: physical & cognitive demands  Working conditions o Individual or team, materials/technology used, job context- environment, indoors or outdoors. Hours or shirts, potential health hazards etc.  Education, training, skill requirements  Job description o Focuses on tasks, what has to be done  Job specification o The person who will be successful in doing the tasks ; person or job holder;  KSAS  Worker-technology interface o Training o How is it used  Rating scales o How is performance or productivity is assessed  Incentives & disincentives o Social needs are met but the job is tiring Person Analysis  Competencies  Experiences o Other jobs; training  Performance level  Values  Work-life Interfaces o Elements that affect their job Need analysis information sources  Workers  Co workers  Supervisors  Subordinates  Clients  Experts – job analysts etc. o Ie 360 degree assessment full circle and look around for assessment of the employee Needs analysis methods (NO BEST WAY. COMBINATION IS BEST APPROACH)  Interviews/discussions o With anyone (boss, customers, co workers) o group  Questionnaires o Tied to task and environment  Observation (direct and indirect) o Directly isn’t always the best o Indirect camera taping etc  Performance appraisals o Formal, informal  Work samples  Tests o Paper pencil o Motor skills tests  Outside experts/ consultants  Assessment centers etc o Basically, combination of different assessment techniques and POTENTIAL of various workers o Psychologists are used sometimes  1/4/2013 8:54:00 PM Training design considerations  Make or buy? o Purchase external training or design it internally?  Do we purchase a program from a vendor or do we do it ourselves  Write training objectives o Specify what trainees should be able to achieve after completing the training program o IE KSAS and their application  Determine training program (ie overall structural framework, content and training methods) Training Design  W5H o Who has to be trained?  Size of the group?  The trainer?  SME (subject-matter expert)  Knowledge, expertise and credibility, interpersonal and communication skills, preparation and planning, attitude towards students/training etc. o What?  Outcomes/expected performance standards  Determines content of training  Transfer of training, learning retention  Job site, need to ensure that we have retention of the learning o Where  Conditions associated with it  On site or off site,  On job or off job  Room layout and seating o When  When should it be done, when can it be done  If training is imp, then it must be done ASAP  Do we have the $ o Why  NEEDS analysis process – issue o How  Methods or processes used  Lectures, group activities Training and learning objectives include  Desired outcomes o Behaviors (customer service), outputs, skill mastery, task performance, knowledge etc. after training  Performance standards o Clear explanation of required standards for success/acceptable performance (accuracy, quantity, quality, speed, process sequencing etc.)  Conditions/context of performance o Context in which outcomes demonstrated (indoors or outdoors, solitary or team, tech and other support available etc) Training programs must incorporate  W5H including budget/resources  Training site selection & preparation, including seating plan o Machines o technology  Materials and equipment o Handouts o Binders  Training course outline o Content subdivided and scheduled into individual units (ie lessons), each with its own lesson plan  Selection of trainer/subject-matter-expert & trainees Analysing trainer capability  Past experience with specific training desired  Ask to see past training evaluations/formal results  Can they supply a variety of arms-length references  Background education KSAS  Inspect and analyse proposed training design and outline, handouts, materials etc.  Have them do a trial presentation o In front of HR training staff  Are they providing template models or are they addressing your org’s specific requirements? o One sit fits all template models?  Attitude, professionalism etc. Training Delivery Problems  Fear o Fear of public speaking o Ice breakers  Credibility o Trainer must have a match for the training topic  Lack of personal experiences o Must be able to give application or personal experiences to give feedback to trainees  Difficult learners o May not want to learn o May have hard time learning something o PEOPLE LEARN DIFFERENTLY*  Participation o May be difficult o If group is large, public speaking is scary  Timing o When training has to be done.. o Timing and pacing  Adjusting instruction o Power outage; heating in class room o More examples; based on students understanding  Questions o Going beyond is there anymore questions o Must ask questions to the class in order to understand the students level of understanding  Feedback o Of the delivery… was it too fast? Too slow? Etc..  Media, materials, facilities o Focused on technology instead of learning outcomes o Technology = problems o Is the place comfortable to learn in  Opening and closing techniques o Opening is greeting or tie back to previous materials; outline o Closing conclusion and what has been covered; whats in the next training  Dependence on notes o Notes are boring when someone reads it o Don’t do it o Important to have though o Don’t rely on it 1/4/2013 8:54:00 PM Training methods  No best method for o Attention o Assimilation o Retention o Reproduction  Each approach and method has advantages and disadvantages o One the job or off the job  Ex lecture room, board room  Off the job – controls the training the environment, pace, temperature, train a large amount of people, no interfere with the work  Disadvantages – there can be difficulties in transfer training, methods can be costly,  OTJ – exact equipment and process (enchances training transfer), cheaper (sometimes),  Disadvantages – work disruption, safety issues (individuals can get hurt at fast levels), co worker peer pressure  Method must fit training requirement and desired learning outcomes (needs analysis)  Multiple methods often best (blending training – using more then one method) On the job training methods  Apprenticeship training o Occurs variety people  Aircrafts  Chefs  Plummer o Someone who is fully licensed o 1-5 years o then get a license in order to train on their own o A – variety of experiences, learn from others, questions and feedback directly, not rushed, time to learn  Job-shadowing o Trainee shadows an employee and watches and learn from them o Individual travels on the shadow o A- learn in risk free environment, feedback and discuss,  Coaching o One to one relationship usually o Trust and communication is key o Coach gives a breakdown in order to learn with trainee o A- one to one relationship, feedback, very interactive o D- expensive, trained coach, time wise  Mentoring o More vertical (senior and junior employee; mentor and his mentie) o Provides advice and feedback to the junior in terms of career and making connections and networking across the organization.  Job rotation o Moving through variety of different jobs in order to gain exposure o University setting – research committee, training committee, o Prepares trainee to understand and learn the bigger picture in the job  Cross-training o Many different kinds of training o Learning other types of jobs and skills involved with flexibility in the team o Ex army team – trained for all four – driver, gunner, signal operators, commanders etc  Performance aids o Checklists, posters o Reminders on how to perform the job o Ex wristbands of play options in football o Checklists for verbal orders  Job-instruction training o Behavioral modeling o Formalized, structured training approach similar to modeling o Whole task is subdivided into parts then subsequently performed as an entire sequence o JIT process consists of  Preparation  Instruction  Performance  Follow-up Training Methods 1/4/2013 8:54:00 PM Off the Job Training Methods  Can be conducted in-house (organization) and/or outside the organization  Lecture o University lectures o Efficient way to convey information o Downside – not very participatory - audience and lecturer relationship is low  Example like tutorials should be used  Discussion o Seminars  Trainees must have researched or read  Easy going and free exchange of ideas  If it works properly it is great  Downsides – ppl dominate, some ppl talk too much, the lecturer doesn’t allow more ppl to speak o Debates  Good way to understand and learn about a issue in depth  Favour a side and rebuttal  In depth learning o Tutorials  Effective way to teach a small group to explore aspects in depth  Used in conjugation with lectures  Trainees are limited to speak up  More free to participate  Group activities: structured & informal o Formal and structured – particular problem assigned, leader assigned, time and rules – must operate and solve the problem according to the rules and structure  Observing communication and leadership  More formal and structured o Informal – gives an issues without a set structured and leadership  Case Study & case Incident o Healthcare field – study the hospital how does it work what problems does it happen ; how do other org similar to your work o Downside – if you have a dissimilar organization (dif country) transfer of training will not be minimal because the other organization is so different from what you faced so therefore crossover is minimal o Case incident – micro case – handling of patients – specific one  Behavioral Modeling/ Demonstration o IE Observe-rehearse-reward/reinforce transfer o Behavioral modeling – the trainer shows how a particular process is to be performed; trainees observe what is to be done; then is rehearsed and receive feedback; then there is reinforcement to learn the proper way; make sure the training transfer is complete  Role plays o Structured or spontaneous  Role play around the issue  Structured – specific (ie someone is cashier someone is customer; well defined; timed; learn the behaviours and observe the others role play) o Role-rotations  You’re the sales person and someone is potential customer  Then you switch.. o A lot of interpersonal contact  In Basket/ In Box exercises o Think about a desk in a organization o In basket – things to deal with and process o Out basket – when things are done o Be able to prioritize what you have to do, deal with stress  Games (eg business games) o Computer games o Business games  Sample business, budget, parameters, make decisions, invest, competitive responses  Simulations o Equipment & Process (eg pilots, surgeons) o Training and develop without consequences  Guest Speakers o Useful way of augmenting learning to trainees o Constact to the trainers that are involved o Downsides – not focused on key things that your learning and sometimes they focus on personal accomplishments and not outcomes so they get off topic  Experiential & Action Learning o Learners go and experience trial situations  In group situation  Learn from real settings, from lectures o Action – focused on specific outcomes  Specific changes or problem learning (more micro) Technology Based Training  Intranet or internet o Blogs. Wiki, web conferences, webinars  Ipod or smart phone  Audio-visual multimedia training o Video clips, photos, graphics, text, charts, posters, animation, audio, computer presentations, ed, dvds  Teleconference and videoconferencing o Training can be done with this; all over the world; more cost and time efficient o Video conferencing – northern areas of Canada for health care  Programed instruction o Self-paced instruction o Modules o Accessible anywhere  Computer simulations  Intelligent tutoring systems  E learning  Virtual reality Don’t be hung up too much on technology  Downside – too relan
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