Chapter 6: Off the job training methods
Instructional methods: techniques used to convey training content with a program such as lectures,
discussions or role plays.
Lecture : organizes content to be learned as it is presented orally.
Adv. = large amounts of info to large groups of people in a short time, cheap.
no more than 6 major points should be presented per half hour of a lecture
Refer to and print table 6.1 pg 168
-Discussion model: allows 2 way communication. Serves 5 purposes
1. Helps recognize what they don’t know and what they should know
2. Allows opportunity for answers to questions
3. Allows to get advice on topics of concern
4. Allows to share ideas and derive a common wisdom
5. Way for trainees to learn about one another as people
-Audio visual methods: various forms of media are used to show key points or demonstrate
behaviours. Ability to control the pace of training. Most popular.
-Case study method: trainees discuss, analyze and solve problems based on a real situation.
Encourages open discussion. Objectives of a case study are:
1) introduce realism into trainees’ learning
2) Deal with a variety of problems, goals, facts that occur in reality
3) Teach trainees how to make decisions’
4) Teach trainees to be creative and think independently.
-Behaviour modelling: trainees observe a model performing a task and attempt to imitate what they
see. 4 key elements include attention, retention; reproduction and reinforcement are needed for
observational learning to take place.
-Teaches interpersonal skills such as supervision, negotiation and communication.
-4 principles: observation (modelling), rehearsal (practice), refinforcement (reward) and transfer.
-The process results in development of skills & self efficacy to use them. Finally to maximize the
transfer of learning o the job.
-to be effective trainees must trust trainers sufficiently.
Role play: most useful for acquiring interpersonal and human relations skills and for changing attitudes.
-3 phases: development (develop objectives), enactment (assigned roles, so empathy is developed for
those in every role) and debriefing (discuss experiences and outcomes of role play, behaviours are
corrected and attitudes are changed).
-Able to practice and learn new skills
-learn instantly from mistakes
Games: structured competition that allows learning of specific skills. Business games focus on the
development of problem solving, interpersonal and decision making skills.
-Disadvantage: weak relation to training objectives and emphasis on winning might get so caught up in the game they’ll forget the importance of learning. Not enough evidence for impr