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Lecture

ADMS 2400 Lecture Notes - Organizational Commitment, Positive Affectivity, Trait Theory


Department
Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Professor
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon

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Chapter 9 Personality, Cultural Values and Ability
Capture what people are like:
Personality: The structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic
patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior; personality reflects what people are like and creates their
social reputation. Personality is also a collection of multiple specific traits.
Traits: Recurring trends in people’s responses to their environment. (Adjectives such as responsible,
critical, organized, or achievement-oriented are all examples of traits).
Cultural Values: Shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture that
influence the expression of traits.
Capture what people can do:
Ability: Relatively stables capabilities of people for performing a particular range of related activities.
The Big Five Taxonomy
Big Five: The five major dimensions of personality including CANOE.
Conscientiousness: Dimension of personality reflecting traits like being dependable, organized, reliable,
ambitious, hardworking and persevering (determined).
Has the biggest influence on job performance
Accomplishment Striving: A strong desire to accomplish task-related goals as a means of
expressing one’s personality.
Moderate positive correlation with job performance and organizational commitment
Agreeableness: Dimension of personality reflecting traits like being kind, cooperative, sympathetic,
helpful, courteous, and warm.
Communion Striving: A strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means
of expressing one’s personality.
Neuroticism: Dimension of personality reflecting traits like being nervous, moody, emotional, insecure,
jealous, and unstable.
Negative Affectivity: A dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods, such as
hostility, nervousness, and annoyance.

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Differential Exposure to Stressors: Being more likely to appraise day-to-day situations as
stressful, thereby feeling that stressors are encountered more frequently.
Differential Reactivity to Stressors: Being less likely to believe that one can cope with the
stressors experienced on a daily basis.
Openness to Experience: Dimensions of personality reflecting traits like being curious, imaginative,
creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated.
Beneficial in some jobs but not others.
Jobs that need innovative thing benefit from employees that carry an openness to experience
dimension of traits with them.
Extraversion: Dimension of personality reflecting traits like being talkative, sociable, passionate,
assertive, bold, and dominant.
Easiest to judge In zero acquaintance situations
o Zero Acquaintance Situations: Situations in which two people have just met.
Status Striving: A strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a
means of expressing one’s personality.
Tend to be high in positive affectivity.
o Positive Affectivity: A dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods
such as enthusiasm, excitement, and elation.
Cultural Values
Ethnocentrism: One who views his or her cultural values as “right” and values of other cultures as
“wrong.”
Geert Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Values
Individualism-Collectivism: The degree to which a culture has a loosely knit social framework
(individualism) or a tight social framework (collectivism)
Power Distance: The degree to which a culture prefers equal power distribution (low power distance) or
an unequal power distribution (high power distance)
Uncertainty Avoidance: The degree to which a culture tolerates ambiguous situations (low uncertainty
avoidance) or feels threatened by them (high uncertainty avoidance)
Masculinity-Femininity: The degree to which a culture values stereotypically male traits (masculinity) or
stereotypically female traits (femininity)
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Short-term vs. Long-term Orientation: The degree to which a culture stresses values that are past-and
present-oriented (short-term orientation) or future-oriented (long-term orientation)
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