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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - ER and Golgi.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1000
Professor
Michael Gadsden
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 5 IN Endoplasmic Reticulum  Basic (general) unit sugars are added onto proteins  and proteins are folded into 3 structures  Leave in vesicles to the Golgi IN the Golgi  Modifications to protein structures and sugar arrangement occurred  Essentially some sugars are removed and others are added on depending on the protein  Poly-peptide (protein) have many sugars added on (oligosaccharide chains)  See sheet  Glycoproteins have the same general order of sugars (as all of them are in the ER)  Sugar chain + protein = glycoproteins  Glycoproteins mostly end up on the cell membranes  See Sheet  The sugars end up outside of the cell and are inside the vesicles  For glycoproteins the sugars help with: o Identification of the cell o EG (liver cells to come together and stick together) o Protects the cell from invasions by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens) o Changes in the environment (i.e. acid, salts)  Outer part of cell and protein o See Sheet o Known as the glycocalyx o The saccharide coat of eukaryotic cells (this is not present in Prokaryotes) o Medical Importance  Transplants (glycoprotein codes!)  One must wash the saccharides off in the glycocalyx  This is so they cannot be recognized by antibodies and killed  Tissue will thus be protected  Another option is to give the person drugs so that the immune system is down, but this is problematic because they are weak (no antibodies)  EVERYONES sugar patterns are different (But aren’t the glycocalyxes the same amongst one species?)  The cells will often begin to produce the transplanted area’s glycoproteins (But won’t the cells begin to reproduce the old glycoprotein?) o Some sugar chains target a polypeptide to a cellular location  I.e. a specific mannose put on a polypeptide in Golgi will indicate that this protein should go to the lysosome  Membrane Fusion o Membranes contain receptors and they get pulled closer and then whatever is inside the membrane enters the Golgi and the two membranes become one o Some will go back to the ER and have membrane fusion into the ER  Note: Essentially only the Lysosome or ER will fuse with the vesicles  Vesicle fusion to the Cell membrane o When something is brought out putting vesicle membrane onto the cell membrane it is called “Exocytosis”  Leads to cell growth o When something is brought IN by forming a vesicle from the cell membrane it is “Endocytosis”
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