BIOL 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Vesicle Fusion, Glycoprotein, Peptide

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Published on 31 Jan 2013
Department
Course
Lecture 5
IN Endoplasmic Reticulum
Basic (general) unit sugars are added onto proteins and proteins are folded into 3o structures
Leave in vesicles to the Golgi
IN the Golgi
Modifications to protein structures and sugar arrangement occurred
Essentially some sugars are removed and others are added on depending on the protein
Poly-peptide (protein) have many sugars added on (oligosaccharide chains)
See sheet
Glycoproteins have the same general order of sugars (as all of them are in the ER)
Sugar chain + protein = glycoproteins
Glycoproteins mostly end up on the cell membranes
See Sheet
The sugars end up outside of the cell and are inside the vesicles
For glycoproteins the sugars help with:
o Identification of the cell
o EG (liver cells to come together and stick together)
o Protects the cell from invasions by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens)
o Changes in the environment (i.e. acid, salts)
Outer part of cell and protein
o See Sheet
o Known as the glycocalyx
o The saccharide coat of eukaryotic cells (this is not present in Prokaryotes)
o Medical Importance
Transplants (glycoprotein codes!)
One must wash the saccharides off in the glycocalyx
This is so they cannot be recognized by antibodies and killed
Tissue will thus be protected
Another option is to give the person drugs so that the immune system is
down, but this is problematic because they are weak (no antibodies)
EVERYONES sugar patterns are different (But aren’t the glycocalyxes the
same amongst one species?)
The cells will often begin to produce the transplanted area’s
glycoproteins (But won’t the cells begin to reproduce the old
glycoprotein?)
o Some sugar chains target a polypeptide to a cellular location
I.e. a specific mannose put on a polypeptide in Golgi will indicate that this
protein should go to the lysosome
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