Blood: contains cells ( e.g B cells-active immunity) and plasma (Ab – passive immunity).
Different modes of acquiring immunity: (see the photo)
ACTIVE IMMUNITY – to prevent disease
Prevention and therapy of infections
o Most of the damage to cells during infections occurs very early, often before the clinical symptoms of disease appear
- This makes drugs treatment of infection irrelevant in many cases. Eg tummy flu
- Prevention of infection is better and cheaper – virus will not establish in your system
- Vaccines are probably the best way to prevent a disease.
- Flu shot is a prevention tool – it will prevent the symptoms associated influenza
- Price for getting a flu shot is much less than treating a patient in ICU/hospital for the disease.
- Immunologist have formulated vaccines that have proven to significantly reduce the number of cases of infectiouse diseases.
They are constantly forming new vaccines that provide maximum efficacy and safety.
Vaccines: best way to prevention of disease e.g. Polio.
= activating IS by exposing an individual to an Ag. (ANIMATION)
- Produce ab to Ag, help clonal explaination.
- are harmless agents, perceived as enemies
- They are molecules that elicit an immune response, Usually but not
- Trigger active immunity, stimulating the body to defend itself
- no virulence ability, disabled form of Ag, recognized by lymphocyte
, dormant until pathogen are shown
- provide protective immunity against a potential pathogen a vaccine a molecule that can activate in your system- can make vaccine from
sugars and proteins- from slime layer))
- molecules work against capsule/slime layer of bacteria, today,
we make vaccines against sugar, potent surface.
-•Tricking the immune system with something that looks like an enemy but is not.
•Vaccinations are the primary response for the pathogen
•The body is being exposed to weak form of the pathogen that look like the real pathogen but actually is not. We are really cheating the
•It will activate the immune system and the memory cells
Active Immunization – u get it either by getting sick or getting the vaccination
- when we are taking pathogen and changing the pathogen that is not going to cause any harm- injection for the
components of the pathogen
-if infected by same pathogen then it is going to raise immunity-quickly and higher levels- protect you- therefore
less symptoms or none
-primary immune response, secondary immune response Week 7
- Describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a portion of the P provides protection to
unprotected individuals (SEE THE PHOTO)
- When a critical portion of a community is immunized against a contagious disease, most members of the
community are protected against that disease because there is little opportunity for an outbreak. Even those
who are not eligible for certain vaccines—such as infants, pregnant women, or immunocompromised
individuals—get some protection because the spread of contagious disease is contained. This is known as
- If some of the population gets immunized, the contagious disease can spread through some of the population. This
is something that we don't want happening.
- Some parents do not want their children to be vaccinated which proposes a problem because they have a chance
to get the disease.
- if less people are compliant with getting the vaccination, there will be higher incidences of local epidemics.
Milestones in Immunization:
- Sniffing of smallpox crust in China
- Variolation: Inculation with the wild type smallpox
- Turks started to use variolation
England introduce variolation
- Edward Jenner discovers a safe smallpox vaccine
- The same vaccine was used for 200 yea0rs
- Thought something from cows was protecting
country folk from vaccine as they rarely got the
disease but noticed a rask like small pox on their
hands (Cow pox), took samples of their hands and
gave it to a boy, injected real virus to the boy to see if he was immune and he did not get small pox – a success (unethical
nowadays to test people that way)
- Since 1980-the disease is eradicated
Smallpox – incubation period – 70 days
Cow pox injection caused mild symptoms but caused immunity to the disease Week 7
1885 Rabies Vaccine
- In 1885 Louis Pasteur developed the first attenuated (the process by which a virus, bact , etc., changes under lab
conditions to become harmless or less virulent – reduce strength)vaccine – against rabies virus
- Attenuation was achieved by creating a virus strain that were less virulent for humans
- you can use active vaccine against this virus because it will give immunity during incubation period and virus is going to be
Modern Era of the Vaccine
1920s – Diphtheria and Tetanus
1930s – Pertussis (whooping cough)
1955s – Polio
1960s – Mumps Measles (v aggressive, can kill) and Rubella virus
- first trimester – if mom is infected by Rubella, The fetus is likely to get infected by rubella and show symptoms when it is
born, schitzophrenia, rubella can only effect embryo only
1990s – Hep B – very common - causes cancer, cirrhosis
2000s – Rota virus – causes massive diarrhea EL imbalance
Story of Rota virus: Intersucception occurs when the babies are 6 months, children are supposed to get vaccinated by 2 months
How to make vaccin