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BIOL 2900 Lecture 2

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BIOL 2900
Mordechay Anafi

BioterrorismIntentional release of bacteria viruses or toxins for the purpose of harming or killing civilians Terrorists use these biological agents as weapons as they are not easily detected and the symptoms appear after several hours to several daysEx letters containing anthrax 2001 Anthrax not totally related to 911 5 people were killed77 cutaneous 11 inhalationPotential Bioterrorism AgentsCDC Catergory AOrganismsAnthrax a bacteria that produces spores that can stay in the environment forever Plague ex bubonic plague Infections from rats to human beings but may transfer from person to personSmallpoxTularaemia aggressive bacteria Small amount of this can be fatal Found in rabbits squirrelsViral haemorrhagic fever loviruses ebola yellow feverBotulinum toxin puried strong toxin secreted from bacteria 1mm of bt can kill thousands Featureseasily transmitted usually by aerosolshigh mortality rated for some eg smallpoxpublic panic and social disruptionpurpose of bioterrorismCost of coping with bioterrorism is expensiveresources of health care system ICU Emergency room ventilatorsNot enough room for everyoneresearch and development RDAfter 911 approx 100 billionwas the cost of coping with bioterrorism RD Takes months to recover Bioterrorism What can be done by the rst respondents Video Nurse is the rst responder Dectection from the rst responder is the most important Awareness If faced by suspected casess seek expert advice ASAPAnthraxCases of Anthrax in the US 19512001 Average 50 cases a year from rural regions in the 50s1957 started to vaccinate animals for Anthrax Cases of Anthrax drop dramatically a couple of cases per year after the late 60s from chart2001 18 cases of AnthraxCutaneous Anthraxescharspores on skinindication of Anthrax If not treated properly death may occurtreatable by antibioticsGastrointestinal AnthraxIntestinal escharsymptoms fever abdonimal pain vomitting bloody diarrheadiagnosis may be difcult because symptoms are similar to other sicknessfrom contaminated meatInhalation AnthraxFluid in the lungsInvolved with process the spores are germinating in the lungs Spores are engulfed by cells macrophages Spores are not destroyed by macrophages Spores travel with macrophages to lymp nodes where they germinateDestroying the lympnodes Fluid in the lympnodes will enter the lungs Process is very quick A severe type of infection Symptoms are very general ulike symptoms cough fever pain of muscles etcTreatment is delayed because not diagnosed right away Method of administering antiobitics InjectionSmallpox variola majorVirusKilled 300 million in the 20th centuryBeen around thousands of yearsSmallpox was eradicated Only organism to be totally eradicated
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