Class Notes (836,562)
Canada (509,854)
York University (35,328)
Criminology (771)
CRIM 3658 (15)
Anita Lam (15)
Lecture 10

CRIM 3658 Lecture 10: Cybercrime Part 1

6 Pages
Unlock Document

CRIM 3658
Anita Lam

Cybercrimes 1  Definitions of CYBERCRIME HAS BEEN TIED TO THE COST OF cyber CRIMES  According to security software manufacturers, Cybercrimes are expensive problems and cost the world between billions and trillions of dollars each year.  Critics however argue that security software manufacturers have inflated the fear of cybercrimes in order to make people buy their security products  Fraud as the most police reported crimes  Followed by Intimidation violations and sexual violations  Sexual violations as the most frequently cleared cyber offences by police by laying a charge  Less than 1 in 10 cyber bullying incidents are actually reported to the police  In Canada we have distributive reporting environment because the victims of cyber offence might report their complaints to various sources (RCMP, local police force, security provider, etc.)  Data on cybercrimes does not give us an accurate sense of scope of this problem  Cybercrime can be represented differently in different discourses  Lack of information and unified sense of a problem as obstacles to any development in policy initiate to combat cybercrime  We do not have any standardize definition of cybercrime  We do not know how to measure cybercrime  Cybercrime means different things to different people  Cybercrime refers to Insecurity and risk on mind for the general public; cybercrime refers to a range of illegal activities  But the common denominator lies in the central role played by network of information and communications technology  Another definition: crime that takes place within cyber space (very broad definitions)  Cyberspace is the term that is defined by fiction novels and films, not any academic scholars  Thus cybercrime and cyberspace has impacted on how average people come to understand this phenomenon  In pop culture cybercrime is imagined as hacking  It links the use of computers to crime  There have been multiple generations of computer crime films  Genre of hacker themed movies during the 1980s  Hackers are central to the plot of the film  Why do these films matter? Because there is a typical representation of hackers on screen (as a young genius)  The hackers often misunderstood as a male teenagers  The ideas of hackers are shaped and reshaped with changing times  Computer crime films take some liberties  For our purposes it is important that these films have created a powerful stereotypical image of a cyber criminal  This hacker would be introverted youth to a subordinate system  This image enhances and increases moral panics and the levels of public anxiety for hacking and cyber crimes  These have implications when we form policies and initiatives to combat cybercrimes  Pop reps of hacks are largely inaccurate and incorrect  Hackers see themselves rebelling against authority or corrupt system  We see this most clearly in the hackers manifesto o Written in 1986 by The Mentor o Attempts to defend hacking activities o Hackers have a higher level of superiority o Hackers here are represented as people who are nobly liberating o Critics have argued that these are just justifications to excuse your illegal behaviours  Labelling and hackers o Great chain robbery -black hats (overtly malicious and dangerous)and white hats (use hacking to test and improve the security of computer systems) o Colour coding strategies in Hollywood films- o In contrast to both white and black, Grey hats have unclear motive and unpredictable behaviours o From these labels , we note that hackers are not homogenous o They wear different hats depending on their motivations o Global digital divide- differences in access to internet technology between rich and poor, developing countries o In 2009, 75% of the population in North America was online o Some countries have access to internet technology and others do not because of the expensive cost of internet technology o Why do we care? Because the real danger in this divide is that this divide enhances the position of industrial economy over those of the developing countries o Wall redefines cybercrime as a transformation of harmful or criminal behaviour by network technology o The crucial part here is networked technology o RCMP divides computer crime in two categories: o technology as instrument or computer assisted crime  Use technology as instrument to commit crimes  Technology is used to assist criminals to commit crimes o Technology as target  crimes have emerged with the establishment of the internet; they do not and cannot exist apart from technology and internet David Wall and typologies of cybercrime  Wall offers us a typology of cybercrime  Comprehensive framework for understanding cybercri
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 3658

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.