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Lecture 10

CRIM 3658 Lecture 10: Cybercrime Part 1
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Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 3658
Professor
Anita Lam
Semester
Winter

Description
Cybercrimes 1  Definitions of CYBERCRIME HAS BEEN TIED TO THE COST OF cyber CRIMES  According to security software manufacturers, Cybercrimes are expensive problems and cost the world between billions and trillions of dollars each year.  Critics however argue that security software manufacturers have inflated the fear of cybercrimes in order to make people buy their security products  Fraud as the most police reported crimes  Followed by Intimidation violations and sexual violations  Sexual violations as the most frequently cleared cyber offences by police by laying a charge  Less than 1 in 10 cyber bullying incidents are actually reported to the police  In Canada we have distributive reporting environment because the victims of cyber offence might report their complaints to various sources (RCMP, local police force, security provider, etc.)  Data on cybercrimes does not give us an accurate sense of scope of this problem  Cybercrime can be represented differently in different discourses  Lack of information and unified sense of a problem as obstacles to any development in policy initiate to combat cybercrime  We do not have any standardize definition of cybercrime  We do not know how to measure cybercrime  Cybercrime means different things to different people  Cybercrime refers to Insecurity and risk on mind for the general public; cybercrime refers to a range of illegal activities  But the common denominator lies in the central role played by network of information and communications technology  Another definition: crime that takes place within cyber space (very broad definitions)  Cyberspace is the term that is defined by fiction novels and films, not any academic scholars  Thus cybercrime and cyberspace has impacted on how average people come to understand this phenomenon  In pop culture cybercrime is imagined as hacking  It links the use of computers to crime  There have been multiple generations of computer crime films  Genre of hacker themed movies during the 1980s  Hackers are central to the plot of the film  Why do these films matter? Because there is a typical representation of hackers on screen (as a young genius)  The hackers often misunderstood as a male teenagers  The ideas of hackers are shaped and reshaped with changing times  Computer crime films take some liberties  For our purposes it is important that these films have created a powerful stereotypical image of a cyber criminal  This hacker would be introverted youth to a subordinate system  This image enhances and increases moral panics and the levels of public anxiety for hacking and cyber crimes  These have implications when we form policies and initiatives to combat cybercrimes  Pop reps of hacks are largely inaccurate and incorrect  Hackers see themselves rebelling against authority or corrupt system  We see this most clearly in the hackers manifesto o Written in 1986 by The Mentor o Attempts to defend hacking activities o Hackers have a higher level of superiority o Hackers here are represented as people who are nobly liberating o Critics have argued that these are just justifications to excuse your illegal behaviours  Labelling and hackers o Great chain robbery -black hats (overtly malicious and dangerous)and white hats (use hacking to test and improve the security of computer systems) o Colour coding strategies in Hollywood films- o In contrast to both white and black, Grey hats have unclear motive and unpredictable behaviours o From these labels , we note that hackers are not homogenous o They wear different hats depending on their motivations o Global digital divide- differences in access to internet technology between rich and poor, developing countries o In 2009, 75% of the population in North America was online o Some countries have access to internet technology and others do not because of the expensive cost of internet technology o Why do we care? Because the real danger in this divide is that this divide enhances the position of industrial economy over those of the developing countries o Wall redefines cybercrime as a transformation of harmful or criminal behaviour by network technology o The crucial part here is networked technology o RCMP divides computer crime in two categories: o technology as instrument or computer assisted crime  Use technology as instrument to commit crimes  Technology is used to assist criminals to commit crimes o Technology as target  crimes have emerged with the establishment of the internet; they do not and cannot exist apart from technology and internet David Wall and typologies of cybercrime  Wall offers us a typology of cybercrime  Comprehensive framework for understanding cybercri
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