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ENVS 3710 (4)
Lecture 4

Lecture 4 on Landscape Patterns

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Environmental Studies
ENVS 3710
Sam Benvie

Understanding landscape pattern involves recognizing and understanding landscape structure in relation to heterogeneity - Need to recognize it the landscape before you are able to interpreter it Landscape structure can be thought of over – archingly as networks of patches and corridors within a matrix - Network of patches and corridors - Different eco systems: don valley and humber valley - Ecological barrier In a more precise sense landscape structure is the distribution of energy, materials, and species in relation to the sizes, shapes, numbers, kinds and configurations of landscape elements and ecosystems - Structure being objects - Might miss interpret structure – not being a type of process - Materials – given to use to make different structures - *NOTE: see things separately; they are all interconnected together - All connect together – ecosystems; cannot work without the functions In landscape pattern, the focus is on the overarching structure of matrix and network. - Magnify structure – both things change in relations to … Distinguishing matrix: three matrix criteria relative area - Largest landscape – the matrix (the largest area)  IMG: the agricultural landscape – the field  IMG: the river – the wet meadow - Connecting patches Distinguishing matrix:  IMG: agricultural landscape – animals from the top can find its way to the bottom (flow the network) - Connectivity – solid connection (might be connected for us but not always solid for the organism that we are creating for) or spotty Distinguishing matrix: Dynamics - Relationship with the matrix and the corridors - Pasture is unstable – dynamic change (the gradual movement outwards of the woods into the pasture) - The matrix isn’t stable – something intervene (the woods would eventually replace the fields) - The headro – wood vegetation could go into the field - Describing landscape – lose sight of dynamic as static; landscape change in relationship to human beings *recognize the dynamics of ecosystems within this landscape are important – something operating that is going to leave one to replace the other (natural phenomena) Distinguishing matrix: three matrix criteria combining the three criteria - Identify what is the matrix? Largest part of ecosystems - How are they connected and to what degree? - Describe the future change? Patches, corridor and matrixes (*sometimes thought of as succession) *Prairies – human generated succession and change (therefore not really succession) Distinguishing matrix: how matrix criteria influence change desertification example - Retrograde change – deserts o Simpler structured ecosystem and displacing the more complex structure o Based on size – capacity to dry out displaced areas o Permanent fashion – over graze by live stalk Porosity and boundary shape: concept and implications porosity - Boundary shape – circle, triangular, square edge… (two points in which 2 ecosystems meet; when the matrix meets to other ones) - Porosity – in terms of animals, humans, insects; where corridors meet; moving from one patch of matrix to another  IMG: agriculture – moving from one matrix of field to another Porosity and boundary shape: concept and implications closed vs. open boundaries - Nothing can pass through – the closed boundaries - Some degree porosity – open boundaries  IMG: Guelph – has both open (agriculture) and closed boundaries (cities) Porosity and boundary shape: concept and implications porosity and patch sizes (area) - It could be
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