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EATS1010 - The Dynamic Earth and Space Geodesy Lecture 2

3 Pages

Earth, Space Science and Engineering
Course Code
ESSE 1010
Gary Jarvis

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Lecture 2 A new unit of distance to measure interplanetary space Astronomical Unit (AU): The average distance from the Earth to the sun; 1 AU = 149,5977,870 kilometers (~150 million km) 1 LY = 63,240 AU We can measure distances within the solar system in units of AU’s e.g. The distance form the Sun to Earth is 1 AU e.g. The distance from the Sun to Mars is 1.5 AU e.g. The distance from the Sun to Venus is 0.72 AU Categories of Planets Terrestrial (Earthlike): • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars o Small, dense, closely spaces, inner 4 with few moons (The rocky planets) • Mercury: o Closest to the sun at 0.4 AU o Small, rocky, heavily cratered o No atmosphere o Weak magnetic field o One Mercurian year = 88 Earth days o One Mercurian day (176 Earth Days) takes 2 Mercurian years o Long hot days (3 months at 427C) and cold nights (-173C) o No moons • Venus: nd o 2 planet from the sun at 0.72 AU o 95% of Earth’s diameter o Rocket, mountainous, a few craters o CO2 atmosphere o No magnetic field o Hot ~500C o Covered in white sulphuric acid clouds o Rains hot sulphuric acid o No moons • Earth: o 3 planet from the sun at 1 AU o small, rocky, very few craters o nitrogen, and oxygen atmosphere, H2O clouds o global oceans o wind, water and ice ersion o plate tectonics o warm ~4C significant magnetic field o one large moon • Mars: th o 4 planet form sun at 1.5 AU o 50% Diameter of Earth o rocket, rust colour [FeO in surface rocks] o a few craters o past geological acticity  Volcanoes, rivers, canyons o Thin CO2 atmosphere o Polar CO2 ice caps o H2O clouds and snow o Cold ~-55C o No magnetic field o Two small moons (captured asteroids) Jovian (Ju
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