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Oct 10- Jean-Baptiste Guedry .docx

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York University
HIST 2500
William Wicken

October 10: Jean-Baptiste Guedry Broad Themes: the Acadians of the Atlantic region; war, expulsion and return. Reading: William C. Wicken, ‘Re-examining Mi’kmaq-Acadian Relations, 1635-1755,’ in Sylvie Depatie, ed., Vingt ans après, Habitants et marchands: Lectures de l'histoire des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles canadiens , 93-114. (available via eresources) . [,+‘Re-examining+Mi'kmaq-Acadian+Relations,+1635- 1755,’+in+Sylvie+Depatie,&source=bl&ots=dJyed3ppie&sig=hVjbFz_pAKEwsGGfpCkD6Pxx- fE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UkRCUunXLuWi2QWjgoHAAw&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=%3A%20William%20C.%20Wicken%2C%20‘Re- examining%20Mi'kmaq-Acadian%20Relations%2C%201635-1755%2C’%20in%20Sylvie%20Depatie%2C&f=false] - early months of 1750 french missionary loutre had arrive at copequid (farming community on basin, to compensate local acadians for property damage committed by mi’kmaq warriors - Unallowed to travel beyond chebencadie river towards english settlement of Halifax - Mi’kmaq opposing settlement had wanted to force remaining acadians to take up arms and threaten to kill them and pillage their farms if they did not put themselves in a state of attack against the english - 1740s escalating french - english rivalry - Surprise of confrontations of two communities researches have repeatedly emphasised closeness of their cultural, social and commercial ties - Casual relations and intermarriage between two groups occurred far more often than parish or census record indicate - Acadians were well on their way toward realising the official goal of one race by the time british expulsion of acadian population in 1755 - Extensive intermarriage helps explain harmonious relationship that existed between relationship that existed between acadians and mi’kmaq - When french colonial official distributed gifts via the children of such matches, they enhanced the latters prestige within mi’kmaq society - Colonisation changed mi’kmaq and acadian societies in ways that eased integration and fostered a convergence of interests - Growing dependence on european trade goods altered mi’kmaq subsistence patterns and provided incentives for conversion to catholicism and for learning french - Acadians survived harsh environments and raids of new england privateers by relying not just on their own rescues but on those of the mi’kmaq - Mutual dependence made intermarriage both possible and desirable - Irregular contact with missionaries precluded systematic registration of cross cultural marriages - Colonisation may have lengthened cultural and social distances separating acadian and mi’kmaq communities - Vigorous natural increases in the acadian community probably ut an end to the need for continued intermarriage of the kind that occurred during the first few years of settlement - 1713 french fortress of louisburg drove wedge between two communities - 1632 - close trading relationship developed between individual acadian and mi’kmaq families - Links strengthen through intermarriage and maintained despite the dealing importance of the fur trade during the 17th century - Communication was enhanced by recognition of both peoples that shared a common spiritual world - Both attended mass and rituals together though - Economic, social and cultural ties created during early 17th century made possible a peaceful cooccupation of adoring lands - Acadian expansion and escalation of french-english rivalry would undermine prospects of continuing amicable relations - Mi’kmaq inhabited both nova scotia, PEI, south Newfoundland, east new brunswick, gaspe, saint pierre and miqueleon and magdelaine islands - Bay of fundy where principal acadian population was concentrated, mi’kmaq were located at baye sainte marie - European born diseases like smallpox, measles and scarlet fever took toll on mi’kmaq - Recurring hostilities with new england between 1689 and 1760 slowed population growth - War and acadian expansion precipitated migration from favoured fishing cites - During 18th century village size varied from minimum of 40 ppl to more than 100 - Summer mi’kmaq families fish and swim through rivers of bay of fundy - During may garden crops were planted close to fishin sites to be harvested during autumn fish runs - In winter village broke up to smaller hunting groups (3-5 families) to hunt moose, caribou, beaver and other terrestrial animals - Population multiplied almost 30 times for acadians - Women married young and natural restraints upon the population like disease, infrant and child mortality and harvest failures were minimal - 15,000 acadians in 1755 with natural increase - Acadians were prosperous people who exploited mashland areas both to grow crops and feed livestock - Lives were governed by annual cycle of planting and harvesting - Mi’kmaq clearly did not experience growth rates similar to acadians - Effects of opposed economic lifestyles and of an increasing population imbalance became more apparent as 18th century progressed - Conflicts erupted over acadians use of land and mi’kmaw use of livestock owned by colonists - French catholics realise alliance with mi’kmaq would promote french strategic interests in region - Mi’kmaq believed in need to maintain jurisdiction over their lands and to enforce property rights - Mi’kmaq - hunt
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