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Nov 7- Alexander MacKenzie .docx

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York University
HIST 2500
William Wicken

4 November - 10 November November 7: Alexander MacKenzie Reading: Bumsted, pp. 113-18 including embedded texts on A Common Soldier (pp. 116-17 and Tecumseh, (p. 99). • The War of 1812 • americans declared war on great Britain june 18, 1812 • britians high handedness in searching american ships on the high seas during the napoleonic blockade • removing british subjects abroad them • recruiting them into the navy • britians failure to abandon the Ohio valley, where military posts continued to monitor the fur trade • americans coveted candace and they proceeded again to invade in 1812-1813 • armies successively were thrust back through the majority entry points • those told to held province against american armies were neither well trained or welled • appearance of invading american armies posed crisis of allegiance for american settlers in upper canada • civilian damage was heavy • loyalty question wouldn't emerge until after war was over • upper Canadians came out of war convinced that militia had won the war single handed although most militia died of debase and fewer than 30 died in battle • militia myth contributed to emergence of upper Canadian identity through middle years of 19th century • naval war on great lakes from 1812-1814 • atlantic ocean front had handful of legendary set battles between individual american and British naval vessels, which americans typically won, considerable quantity of prize taking both british navy and privateers on goths ides • british won war of prizes • atlantic canada made economic contribution to their communities and helped keep nova Scotia and new Brunswick humming during conflict • before war was ended, Toronto was burned, american a capital at Washington was sacked in retaliation, fort michilimackinac (lake huron) was captured and held by Canadian voyageurs • 1814 great lakes, americans appeared to be winning • last battle new orleans jan 8 1815 was fought after peace statement had been signed • slow communication had kept combatants from knowing hostilities had ceased • americans treated war of 1812 as second war of independence (necessary struggle of separation from mother country) • british saw it as sideshow to napoleon in Europe • british america, war represented an opportunity to serve asa conduit for illicit trade between Britain and US • lower canada, support the french Canadians gave the british demonstrated their loyalty • upper canada, war provided a demarcation point between the loyal and disloyal (americans) • british one in terms of allegiance • after 1815 american culture and influence would decline • upper Canadian tory elite became convinced that the province had ben in great danger • elite carried over the post war period their beliefs in the necessity of the simultaneous suppression of political opposition and the maintenance of social harmony, by force if necessary • beliefs served as basis for upper Canadian toryism for several generations • united states had used the war to solidify its control of the middle ground in Ohio valley and to push the aboriginals farther towards the margins • both united states and great Britain would endeavour not only to end hostilities with the native peoples but forthwith to restore such tribes or nations respectively all possessions, rights and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one 1811, previous to such hostilities • north west: little war between hudson bay company and north west company ran its own course, occasionally touching on Anglo-American conflict • war of 1912, the west fur trade war was fought to an expensive draw—-merge in 1821 • A common soldier fights in the war of 1812 • men dying in war • must leave some behind • prisoners of war • conclusion • diplomatic convention in 1818, great Britain and the united states would agree to declare the great lances an unarmed zone and 49th parallel to be anglo-american border from the lake of the woods to the rocky mountains • british policy would be consistently to seek entente rather than trouble with americans so in a sense americans had won • defeat of napoleon in 1815 marked watershed for Britain and NA colonies • after 1815 shift from overheated war economy to peacetime one in british isles produced substantial unemployment • no industrialization and agricultural rationalization left—-out of work • new era of emigration and immigration • 1815-1860 more than a million Britons would leave their homes and come to british america • help british colonies into maturity Lecture: relationships between british and aboriginal • • common law relationships to issue children • not formalized though the christian church • brant^^ • usually born out of commercial relationships • Mackenzie - fur trader and explorer w/ common law aboriginal wife • women had more power in aboriginal communities or where less european are settled bc european law (man to rights private property) didn't have full control • molly and joseph brantt bc they sided with british, if they stay in ohio valley then they will lose their land bc americans will seek vengeance on them for siding with british • border between lake erie, ontario, lake saint clair and lake Detroit are border between british american and american republic • mohawk move north and given 700,000 and near grand river, good farming land • seek a land surrendering agreement ( from missisauga people) • britsih imperial government reserve land west of montreal, as reserve as the indians hunting ground • and process of how the land could be set up of government through formal surrender of land with representatives british need to ask missisaugians to surrender their land • • mohawk were loyalists • ownership and control over colonies are still important • colonies are a market for commercial market for british finished goods • creation of new settlements of people continual process of people fleeing the united st
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