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Lecture

Nov 28- Lucie Blackburn and Egerton Ryerson .docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 2500
Professor
William Wicken

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November 28: Lucie Blackburn and Egerton Ryerson Readings: Kristin McLaren, „We Had no desire to set them apart‟, in Walker, ed., The History of Immigration, pp. 69-81; • school act of 1850 • mid 19th century canada west saw itself a proud province of the british empire, in which the rights and privileges of all were guaranteed under the british constitution • british settlers believe canada was a moral example of al nations on earth • abolition of slavery was seen as a moral victory for the empire over the united states, thousands of fugitive spaces fled to canada via the underground railroad to live in freedom reinforced sense of superiority among white citizens whose myths presented canada as a land of freedom and equal opportunity by virtue of its british character • tended to highlight the accomplishments of the british in the formation of this province with little recognition of the indispensable efforts of all diversity of immigrants from around the world • canadians fermented who they are in relation to the british institution • many african american immigrants originally looked to canada as a refuge from the discrimination they faced in the united states • mid century 20,000-40,000 black people had settled among british and french canadian colonists, primarily in the rural areas of the southwestern and niagara peninsula of canada west • significant concentrations of african canadians lived in & along Detroit river and lake erie • 1861 40% of canadas west black population had been born in the province • fought for their rights to equal participation in british canadian institutions • many chatham citizens were able to maintain a claim to egalitarian values in the fave of their racist practices because black people were presented as morally inferior and thus nit subject to the same laws as white people • black children would be a bad moral influence upon their own children if both were allowed to attend the same schools • african barbarism might triumph over anglo-saxon civilization if black children were allowed to attend schools with white children • toronto was perhaps the one place where segregation in public education was never the norm affluent population of african canadians in the city had immigrated over a long period of time and had • established a strong infrastructure to support new immigrants • black immigrants from the united states arrived in a slow and steady migration by mid century, never by sudden influx and found work easily in the cites growing economy • in spite of torontos good record on school integration, racism was not completely absent • vast majority of black settlers live in st. johns ward • policies of school segregation may not have seemed necessary if large numbers of black students were together in same school section, already serrated from white students by virtue of district boundaries • most canada west towns, majority of white parents as well as school trustees were opposed to integration • forced to sit on separate benches • most often, black children were not admitted publicly funded elementary schools (common schools) and little concern shown for their education • efforts to segregate black students were blatantly against laws in force prior to 1850 • school act 1843 - not allowed to exclude anyone from common school or benefit of education, no matter class or description • most black teachers in canada west were poorly paid, largely under funded and most were shot lived • buxton mission school - open to all kids of all races • prestigious so most whites wanted to go to school there with the black students • schools ran by african canadians were rarely exclusive — tried to promote integration as african canadians sought to integrate education, public education officials imposed segregation upon • an unwilling black population • 1850 the council of public instruction had introduced education laws that accommodated racist tendencies • Ryerson was first confronted with opposition to integration in public school, said it wa sa disgrace to our legislature • interest of the coloured people could be respected and promoted and nothing insidious be admitted • asked for more schools for children of coloured people • ryerson was able to handle discrimination to pressure to resolve the issues • separate schools for coloured people were authorized out of defence to the prejudices of the white population • new school act shouldn't put control of the black educations into the hands of municipalities • • black didn't want their own school either, they wanted to be equally integrated • if pay taxes, should be allowed in school • if separate school for coloured, must attend no matter how far away • 1856 citizens complained their taxes went to common schools in their section while the segregated school was inaccessible at a distance of up to 15 miles away • most of the black children of camden township were effectively denies access to education because the segregated school was too far for them to attend • public schools for black children were sorely lacking in public funding 1852 anti slavery society of canada reported teachers at black separate schools were poorly paid and • poorly qualified and that the quality of education at those schools was decidedly inferior to that at other common schools • free common schools in 1851, set up separate school for black children • more beneficial or agreeable to the coloured people to have their children taught separately from whites • the whites will not let the coloured children attend their schools it became common practice for trustees to open 3 different kings of schools in their district: one for • protestant, one for romance catholics and one for african canadians • schools opened for african canadians were usually set up and managed by the central board of white trustees and not requested by the parents of black students • school segregation was enforced by the white population of canada west • large numbers of african canadians found little comfort in segregation black students were capable of and did the same work as white and assumptions that they could not • attain the same standards of education are without foundation • segregation was not a black idea • african canadians in canada west worked towards integration and were determined to claim their rights to equal access to schooling • majority of block run schools welcomed a diversity of canadian children, regardless of heritage or meagre funding • schools established by or for black communities in several towns opened their doors to white children who had no other option for education themselves or whose parents recognized the better calibre of education provided in a few cases by well educated missionary teachers • level of instruction at the black schools as superior to that at the white school, white students began to enrol here until two schools eventually integrated • those who run black schools appear to have accepted the refashioning of human identity that becoming canadian entailed • the powers controlling schools in the province shoed a strong propensity towards segregation and thus reluctance to adapt to their newly plural canadian surroundings • equal participation of black students in the public education system could have been seen as a threat to the maintenance of this religiously secured notion of british purity • ideal of british morality was so pervasive in the consciousness of 19th century canadians that the discrimination in he rent in canada wests education system was not confronted by its proponents and was allowed to continue virtually undetected • Patricia E. Roy, „The Colonial Sojourners, 1858-1871,‟ in Walker, ed., The History of Immigration, pp. 82-9. • chinese immigration set in • 1870 Chinese in british columbia were not well treated they did not have the same liberties and privileges as others, the great bulk
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