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Lecture

Working Class History Lecture Sept 25.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 3531
Professor
Jennifer Stephen
Semester
Fall

Description
Working Class History Lecture Sept 25 Working in Pre-Industrial Canada Aboriginal Societies before Contact with Europeans - Hunting and Gathering o Relied on for survival o West coast, mild climatelots of seafood o Settled down in villages o Men did the hunting/waged war/make weapons o Women did pretty much everything else  Food, clothing, fire, canoes - Farming/Agricultural Settlement o A large numbers of vegetables were brought back from north America after contact o A large number of vegetables today were cultivated first by the native Americans o Lived in fortified villages o Within the villages people lived a cluster called long house o Long house was 20-30 meters in length and 6-7 meters wide o 4-5 fireplaces o Specific family would work eat sleep around these fireplaces o Iroquoians did not practice crop rotation  Every 15 years everyone had to pack up and move to a new site  2 reasons; soil depletion o In these farming nations women worked the field o They planted and cultivated the crop o Women also engaged in craft/artisanal labour  Along making canoes they made pottery and make basket and bead work for trade and clothing o Men would clear the land for cultivation o But they main purpose was to hunt to sustain their family o When everyone had to move women would often carry the heaviest load o Gender identity in first nations bares no similarities to that of the Europeans during this period o Native women for free to organize their own tasks o Upon marriage the man would go into the woman’s house not the other way around (matrilineal) o The chief was selected by the elder women o Native societies were not patriarchal o Much of this lifestyle was disrupted by the Europeans with pathogens /disease - Trade o Most first nations were not self-sufficient and relied on trade with other tribes o Trade was carried through a complex of rules o Trade usually took the form of gift giving  Elaborate ceremonies and speeches that spoke to mutual friendship between these tribes o One never haggled over price  Considered unfriendly and hostile o Generosity highly valued  Demonstrating generosity was a way to earn respect amongst your peers o Reciprocity o Social events involved with a round of feasting  Receiving tribe would hold the feast o Potlatch feasts- most elaborate on the west coast o Lack of generosity was frowned upon  If a family suffered a loss it was up to the rest of the village to come together and provided whatever the family needed to survive - Technology o Were sophisticated for what it was - Social organization o Centralized  Each band had a chief  Did not rely on a central authority to impose order o Organized around the principle of communalism (interest of all) o Practiced communalism o Value system that encouraged self-restraint  Vital to the survival of the tribe o Chief maintained is position through courage/character/skill at hunting  Authority limited  Could not impose his will  Had to encourage and persuade his elders  This ability to persuade and inspire was important Aboriginal Societies after Contact with Europeans - Marks the beginning of the spread of capitalism and Christian evangelism - European male traders married native women and a new generation of metis came - Europeans relied on the natives for mapping, health care and food - Natives began to take up Europeans technologies Peasant Family Economies - Settlement o French settlers in Bat of Funday (New Brunswick and St. Lawrence river valley (Quebec) o French settles more interested in the government and to separate them from their land - Ind
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