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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2049
Merv Mosher

Topic one ( Introduction to Research Methods): - Animals are stronger, faster than human, yet we dominate the world! How would be a weak creature like human become the master of universe? The answer is research that got us from to what we are right now point ( A-b on page 8).  4 significant points in human history: - Language: “prior to language communication was non-verbal. Yet the ability to speak in some languages allow for the communications of some ideas. - Writings: writing down ideas (distributed to others). - Printing Press: mass distribution of ideas. - Computers: allow to search (analyse very rapidly as well develop knowledge).  World community grid brings people together from across the globe to create the largest non-profit computing grid benefiting humanity. It does this by pooling surplus computer processing power. “Trying to solve problem – come up to solution”.  Another website to solve problems such as: Swan flu, SARS. An organization like this can hook up researchers around the world, communicate, instantly work and solve problems  An example of flu happened in North America on page 9.  If you use Facebook or twitter your information will be stored in third party - linked Data.  Dbpedia: all date based are hooked up to it.  4 Main Sections of a journal article – (in this course we will be dealing with a format similar to journal article). - Introduction and literature review. - Method. - Results. - Discussion.  Topic 1: - The Scientific Process: something trying to get you go back to it. I.e: a kid who asks why questions, then teachers will not accept you to ask questions. At the end of this course we need you to be a child- like by asking question “ that’s what researcher do” - Kinesiology: the study of human movement/ living long and healthy. 1. “Energy, work, & efficiency” – physiology– biomechanics. 2. “Coordination, control & skill”- motor learning- coaching- teaching. 3. “Growth, development, & form” – life cycle of humans- health nutrition courses. 4. “Culture, value, and achievement” – gymnastics/skating/dance.  The nature and purpose of research: - A profession is only as strong as the research that it produces - A profession must produce new knowledge if it is to remain viable (Astronomy: research happens & Astrology: no such a thing). - The primary method by which a profession advances it’s knowledge base is the process of research. - Research is about finding solutions to problems in a logical, orderly, and systematic fashion – cancer people die of it. - (Systematic coming up for an answer & solution).  Where do you find examples of research in “real world”: - You can find example of research in newspaper & magazines. Such as: mechanical leech (magazine). Interestingly enough, if you are a red head, you are more sensitive to pain (newspaper). Another example in newspaper/ ADHD (study finds that children born later in year given unnecessary medication more often than peers: likewise a kid who born in Dec. is 20% younger than the kid who born in January. So, people who diagnosed ADHD believe that the kid is just less mature; however, by giving one more year will be the same as the other kid. - Purpose of Newspaper: to make money “transmit the news”. - Purpose of drag company: to make big bucks. - Page 13,14,15,16 text book.  Factual information? - Advertising claims Vs fact: 1. Parity claims (nothing better probably equal). 2. Testimonials ( hair tonic) ; believe in certain products will help to grow the hair “ wow” – it won’t give what happen to average person “ abs roller- fix the abs” / testimonials don’t reflect the average user. 3. Statistics: 30% less fat – I.e chocolate bar has 30% less fat. “ average person won’t ask, 30% less fat than what” ?  NNT=Number Needed to Treat. - 1000 people in study { 500 drug 500 placebo “ sugar pills – doesn’t contain anything” } - 15 people had heart attacks {10 placebo, 5 drugs group} – total of 1000. - Relative risk reduction was 50 %. - But was is the risk someone will get sick in the first place??? - Placebo group = 500 and 10 got sick = 2% - Drug group= 500 and 5 got sick= 1%. - Therefore the absolute risk reduction was 1 percentage point !!! - In other words: to prevent 1 heart attack you would have to give 100 people the drug. 1— represents the NNT.  NNH = Number Needed to Harm: - A similar concept: how many need to be treated to cause harm { side effects}. - A low NNT is good and a large NNH is good: 1. Only give it to 15 people and make different in one “ NNT” 2. Give the drug to 1000 and nobody has effect “NNH” - Every drug has side effect- harm the patient – low NNT: give it to “5” ppl & you gain result. - Large NNH: give this drug to “10000” ppl & one person have side effect.  Other examples of “facts” : - Casino Rama – Donald Trump show. - Fishing for sharks. - George W. Bush and the book upside down.  The nature and purpose of research – want to learn how and why this occur: - Research is an organized attempt to obtain” knowledge” (facts/truth). - When possible-develop new knowledge. - When appropriate-modify present knowledge. a. An example of Modify knowledge “ what causes cancer in page 20”- It used to be believed ulcer cause by stress-now research show ulcers develop as an infection of bacteria. b. In 1900, keyboard has been modified to make harder ( slow it down ) for user to use the letter “e” and prevent jumping in papers. - When necessary – correct old knowledge. a. We believed the earth was flat – bad knowledge. b. Earth believed to be the center of the universe; however, this false idea, was corrected later on. - An experiment is the “Gold Standard” for research. - In a true experiment, participants are randomly assigned to either the treatment or the control group. - This is done to eliminate “alternate hypotheses”; if two group have different studies- will try to find a middle solution.  Pavlov and his dogs, a physiologist who used to ring the bell to effect the dog ability to control hunger and eventually they start to salivate: A. A condition experiment. B. Ring bell- dog salivates.  Control experiment on Scurvy Page 21 “sailors got sick with scurvy”.  What are the reasons of studying the perfect model: A. The “Gold Standard” allow us to evaluate all research designs B. Understand the limitations of other designs. Type of Research (s) Note 1. Controlled and randomized - On the top of the pyramid “one group get the drug or treatment and other groups is not. 2. Controlled but not randomized Less reliable. 3. Cohort or case control Less reliable. 4. Multiple time series Less reliable. 5. Expert opinion “I believe student who does use to moodles and go to labs, are going to get A”. Note: Going down the pyramids will influence the research(s) to become less reliable. Page 23.  Questions(why does this happen) are the stimulus for research- how does the researcher decide to do research in certain area, it comes down to questions “ child-like”: - What are the relationships between diet, physical activity and health? - Can caffeine enhance athletic performance? - Does mental practice affect skill acquisition and performance?  Questions? Fitness & Nutrition logic? “page 23,24”.  The nature and purpose of research: - Humans depend on five sources to gain knowledge or “ ways of knowing”  Ways of “knowing” : ( How do you gain all those knowledge? Have you ever thought how?) - Custom and tradition: - Christmas, Santa-Clause & Eastern Bunny. - Authority: - When you get to school and the teacher inform their information in your head (teacher, police officer). - Personal experience: - Superstitions ( Luck Rabbit and Good luck) & Intuition ( things come in back of the brain and advice you not to attempt in doing something that you will be sorry for doing it. - One day running around the house with my sister, put my hand on stove (burn myself) and my sister said I won’t do that. - Reasoning: A. Deductive (General assumption to specific application. Based on logical conclusions (start broad and going narrow). B. Inductive ( specific cases to general application based on empirical methods ( start narrow and end broad) - Scientific inquiry: 1. Problem identification. 2. Statement of hypothesis. 3. Collection and analysis of data. 4. Accept or reject the hypothesis. 5. Conclusions. 6. An example: lots of research failed but every failure come closer to certain answer. “ going back in time and getting in need to initiate fire, the hypothesis will be having the stick wood to start fire. First collected wood stick were put in water (no fire), then starting to analysis data by performing another methods until I reach to rubbing the sticks together to start fire.  The Scientific method ( a method of coming up with a knowledge): - Areas of study such as chemistry and biology, physics are called science because of the method of study NOT the content. A. Chemistry  alchemy (people who tried to turn metal into gold). B. Astronomy  Astrology (doing research vs. not doing research). - The techniques used to get at knowledge that is reliable, truthful and factual are referred to as “science”.  Assumption of Science: - An example: (letting down the remote and surely will go down to the floor not on the wall or somewhere else) 1. There is a real and knowable universe. 2. The universe operates according to understandable rules or laws. 3. The laws of universe are immutable (unchangeable). 4. The laws can be understood by careful observation, experimentation and research.  Characteristics of Research: 1. Generally, carefully designed – unbiased. 2. Research is objective and logical (supposed to be unbiased). 3. Expertise is required (know the field and the techniques). 4. Development of generalizations (predict future occurrences). 5. Based upon empirical evidence (observe; Measure; Experiment). 6. Gather new data or use existing for new purposes (primary sources). 7. Required accurate observation & description (quantitative measuring). 8. Careful recording (results published for others to examine). 9. Unhurried and patient activity (often failures “Edison with the light bulb”)/ it takes more time to discover thing it’s often about failure. 10. Replication (confirms or raises questions)/ some results can be repeated by other researchers. 11. Requires courage ( e.g: stem cell; smoking ; cell phone). 12. Reductive (explain – reduce down to simple components) / the nature of complex things can always be reduced to explained by simple or more fundamental things. 13. A mechanical approach to nature (e.g. you can take the object apart then put it back together).  Okinawa = 100 year old people/ people tried to do some research in Japan, to find out how come people live longer and they assumed that because of diet, then went back to influence their thoughts. But, the truth is that people are being isolated form the society in here!  Scientific Axioms ( idea or thought that considered to be generally true): - Amorality – knowledge and morality should be independent (without morality). - Caution - new knowledge is accepted cautiously. - Consistency – the world is orderly ad remains so for long periods of time. - Determinism – the cause of events can be determined and take place for a reason. - Empiricism – knowledge should be based on observation (what we see). - Intelligibility- humans have the ability to understand the world. - Parsimony- simple explanations are preferable (going down & pushing up ) / simple is better. - Skepticism – knowledge remains open to criticism or challenge.  Hypothesis- an idea or assumption we believe to be true for the moment: A. Based on previous research or theory. B. Simple and clear. C. Testable. D. Testing techniques currently available. - An example: smoking is not a good thing & king and the massacred babies.  Research terms: - Directional (Research) hypothesis. - Non-directional (Null) hypothesis. Research hypothesis Null hypothesis - Exercise good for you. - Testing “Exercise good for you”. - What is actually done in research - Only null hypothesis can be tested statistically. - Hypothesis: a prediction based on existing knowledge. - Fact: “consistently observed event” the scientific method develops facts. - Theory: integrates many facts into an explanation of a phenomenon or a belief about how things related to each other. - Theory: page 32/ {cheers-Cliff Calvin}.  Theories: - Two functions of theories: - To organize a related set of observations or facts. - To make predictions for new research. - Evaluating Theories: a. Precision: the more precise, the better,. b. Simplicity (Occam’s razor); the simpler, the better. c. Testability: must be testable to be useful. Theory Hypothesis - Predicts events in general terms. - Makes a specific prediction about a specific set of circumstances. - Extensively tested and is generally - Is a speculative guess that has yet to be accepted. tested ( not sure). - Principle: guides behavior based on theories and facts (exercise daily or eating healthy is good for ,e therefore I don’t drink pop). - Law: specific statement usually expressed in the form of a mathematical equation ( CRT= a+b Log2 2N) / predict reaction time; if you have 3,4,5 choices etc… (Law is a mathematical that explain thing).  Relationship between terms: - Hypothesis: implies insufficient evidence: serves as tentative explanation (person whose charge with criminal offence). - Theory: implies more supporting evidence and a greater likelihood of truth (an experiment). - Law: implies an invariable relationship and the greatest likelihood of truth (when I drop the remote will drop in speed of 9.8m).  Model: - Models provide a simplistic way of viewing complex problems or phenomena ( define a problem and identify their risk and protection). - An example: the public health model: 1. Define the problem. 2. Identify risk and protective factors. 3. Develop and test prevention strategies. 4. Assure widespread adoption. - A problem; germs ( define) – what are the risk ( when germs being spread ) – protective factor ( wash your hand ). - Another example (how our body can produce energy/ pg. 35).  The risk of success: - Galileo- the earth is not the center of the universe. - Charles Darwin – species evolved.  Level of knowledge: - An example: Heart disease. - Description: describe heart diseases. - Prediction: can we predict who can have heart attack? - Control: can we control cardio-vascular diseases. - Explanation: we can explain what causes heart diseases.  Tenure? - Protects “academic freedom”- publish research freely( design to protect people who do research in unpopular area in the status quo). - Allows research on ideas that are contrary to the status quo or the interests of the university.  The research process: - Define/select a problem. - Develop a hypothesis. - Review the literature. - Determine the measures. - Describe the subjects. - Design the research study. - Identify/develop the measuring instruments. - Conduct the study. - Analyze the data. - Conclusions. - Research report.  Professional responsibilities: - You must remain current with the research. - We should all be consumers of research.  Roots of Scientific Terms: page 39-40-41-42-43-44-45-46-47-48-49-50-51 “memorized!” Topic 2: Research questions & Types of research ( you can make comparison horizontally not vertically): 1. Theories ( sources of questions ): - Research before theory. - Theory before research. 2. Previous Research. 3. Practical problems (New Year resolution). - Questions come from practical problems. - Exercise can get better; the question is how much exercise? How intense? 4. Basic and Applied. 5. Qualitative & Quantitative. 6. Descriptive & experimental. - What is the different between descriptive and qualitative; it’s similar in asking someone what is the different between a male and a blond? These things must be understood horizontally rather vertically. 7. Longitudinal & Cross-Sectional. 8. Human & Animal.  Basic & Applied: - A continuum (have a line) exists that describes the relationship between the two. Basic Research -------------------------------------------- Applied Research - Basic( pure ) : A. Goal is to discover new knowledge. B. Usually deals with theoretical problems. C. May have no practical application at the present time. - Example 1 : DNA has been called the “ladder of life” using data discovered by the basic research of other scientists. James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structural design of the DNA molecule in 1953. “nobody wouldn’t know that pigs similar to human unless somebody discover DNA”. - Example 2: 1931 Earnest Lawrence invented the cyclotron “used in radioactive isotopes” accelerate atomic particles radioactive isotopes carbon 14 dating, etc… - Applied research- figuring out an immediate problem: A. An effort to solve an immediate problem. B. Uses “real-world “setting. - An example: vacuum tube, transistors, integrated circuits. Basic Applied - If practical use can’t be envisioned in the - If practical use is only a few years away. foreseeable future.  Yang-Ying Figure: We need both parts of oppositely content components: Qualitative Quantitative - Research used in bran new areas of - Collect numerical data to understand the studies. concept being studied. Attempt to develop - Determine the reasons for human a mathematical model. behaviour (Tools – focus groups, in depth - Variables are controlled and manipulated. interviews and questionnaires). - Quantitative measuring: “How much? Tool - Simply describing what is going on. & procedures are the main components” - Variables are not manipulated in qualitative research. - An example: “ how are you doing today? I’m ok ! you don’t sound too ok ? what is bothering you? I couldn’t sleep well, I have an anatomy exam. Descriptive Experimental - Gather information about naturally - Manipulate variable to understand cause occurring events (use surveys, observation, and effect relationships. correlation, etc ). - Considered the “gold standard” in research - Describing not manipulating/ describing & by many. recording very carefully what you have - Greatest amount of control over variables. observed. - Much easier in physical sciences. - An example: Marriage doesn’t’ make you happy “ Pg. 56.” Longitudinal Cross-Sectional - Same subjects are measured repeatedly over - Subjects are measured at the same time an extended period of time- many months or (photograph). years (movie) – observing the same subject for - Taking snap shots for one moment. a period of time trying to find out the changes. - An example- looking to know whether - An example: 9/11 a little kid ( 4 yrs. old )seeing breast feed children are less likely to all the stuff in TV, he will be very altered if he become obese: progress to grade 9. In contradict; the kid in - Objective: to assess the impact of breast grade 9 has a different impact on what’s going feeding on the risk of obesity and risk of on in 9/11. being overweight in children at the time of - Example 2: Framingham Heart Study( to entry to school. identify the major factor characteristics and - Method: routine data were collected on factors contributing to cardiovascular diseases the height and weight of 134,577 children (CVD) participating in the obligatory health - Example3: Nurses “ Health Study”( to study examination at the time of school entry in the risk factors for major chronic diseases in Bavaria, in a subsample of 13,345 children, woman). Also, represented the age range assessed using responses to a when names might change because of questionnaire completed parents. marriage, professional changes would be - Another example: frequent and woman would have busy lives - Subject: 9357 children aged 5 and 6 of because of child-rearing. Pages: 58-59-60-61. German nationality. - A longitudinal design can be time consuming, - Main outcome measures: being expensive, and the loss of subjects is of overweight was defined as having a body concern because some may have to withdraw mass index above the 90 percentile and or become unavailable for many reasons as obesity was defined as body mass index th the study progresses. above the 97 percentile of all enrolled - Since a longitudinal design is observational in German children. Exclusive breast feeding nature, the relationship observed is only was defined as the child being fed no food correlational and not causal “ smoking other than breast milk. whether it causes cancer or not” - Results: the prevalence of obesity in - children who had never been breast fed was 4.5% as compared with 2.8% in breastfed children similar relations were found with the prevalence of being overweight. The protective effect of breast feeding was not attributable to differences in social class or lifestyle. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, breast feeding remained a significant protective factor against the development of obesity.  Human & Animal: - Human research- Human used as subjects. - Animal Research- Animal used as subjects. - Animal Research: What is animal research? Observational Research: Gain knowledge from animals (and plants) by observing ( an example: Breath- holding seals eyes in heard research “ pg. 64) – Biologist “ Thomas Hawke” Experimental Research: use animals as subject in the early stages of testing before there is evidence of the treatment being sage for human trial. - Experimental Animal Research: Year(s) Name of Scientist(s) Name(s) of discovery 1890 Emil Von Behring Diphtheria Toxin in Guinea Pigs. 1920 Banting & Best Insulin – Used dogs in experiment. 1920s-40s Sir Alexander Fleming Penicillin in bacteria; later tested in mice and deemed it as an effective antibiotic. 1940s Selman Waksman Streptomycin (antibiotics). 1960s Allan Carpentier & Albert Starr Heart Valve replacement from pigs hearts & was able to perform the transplant after performing the surgery on dogs. 1950s Jonas Salk The polio virus in Rhesus monkeys. - Present day: animal research is currently being used to try and discover cures for Alzheimers and other common human diseases. - Many surgeries, organ transplants and common vaccines that are sued nowadays are the results of animal research. Common Research Animals Type of Usage(s) in research Mice The smallest mammal that is physiologically and genetically similar to humans- sharing close to 99% of the genes through to be relevant to health. Rats First animal domesticated for research. Guinea Pigs Germ theory, vaccines. Rabbits The Pill. Cats Brain Mapping. Dogs Artificial insemination, hemophilia ”breathing uncontrolled” Chickens Immune system. Cattle Immune system. Sheep Cloning prions- brain diseases. Monkey Rh positive/negative. - Animal protectionists: believe that animal’s should be treated with the same standards and tight as humans. “What give us the right to take a rate and use it for experiment”. Advantages of animal research Disadvantages of animal research - Source of basic research. - The genetic similarity between humans and - High genetic similarly between some animals animals is not exact. and human beings. - Humans and monkeys are 96% similar, - Because they are monitored in a lab, there is humans and flies are about 60%. control of extraneous variables that could - The mouse genome is 14% shorter than limit alternate hypotheses. humans. However, human and mice are - Control of the drop-out rate. more than 90% similar. - Difficult to obtain a large sample size in - Difficult to define threshold of ethical and humans. unethical treatment. - Legal and ethical limitation of treatments to - Little anesthesia administered in some humans. experiments. - Sources of many medical treatments. - Animals may be handled roughly. - Short life span and quick reproduction rate - Expensive and time consuming compared to for example in rats and fruit flies. human research. - Examples ( HRT “ hormone replacement therapy” ) was tested on animals but had unanticipated effects on humans. Those taking HRTs had more heart attacks and strokes than those who did not. “ mice don’t get heart attack” . - 22 drugs used in mice were effective for spinal cord injuries; none of these drugs were effective in humans. - Epinephrine increased survival rates in mice but had no such effects in humans.  Factors in Problem Selection: - Interest. - Time. - Budge. - Scope: what actually trying to gain knowledge about”. - Theoretical or practical value: what is you want as a researcher to contribute to a society. Topic 3: Disseminating Knowledge: 1. Presentations : A. Public address. B. Poster presentation. 2. Written Report.  Public Address: Advantage Disadvantage - Receiving feedback. - Limited audiences. - Information not permanent/ not peer reviewed.  Number Needed to Treat (NNT) - Definition: The NNT is the number of patients who need to be treated in order to prevent one additional bad outcome. “How many need to be treated until one has positive outcome”. - It is the inverse of the Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR). - How to Calculate NNTs: - NNT = 1/ARR. - ARR= {CER-EER), where CER= control group event rate (does not get treatment) & EER= experimental group event rate (get the treatment). - Review page 70 (sample Calculation).  Method of Disseminating Knowledge: A. Poster presentation: very large hall, broken down to specific area. - Advantages: ending up dealing with other researcher in your area. - Disadvantages: limited audience / not permanent not peer-reviewed. B. Written Report: - Advantages: permanent, very detailed, has been peer-reviewed. - Disadvantages: long time - from results has been discovered until submission “ it takes 6 months - - 2 yrs have something discovered. “ publish- faculty member has to publish every year”. - Unique features of scientific writing : 1. Past tense. 2. Third person (some exceptions). 3. References provided. - Format of a Journal Article: 1. Abstract: - A summary of the entire article; usually only 5-6 sentences long; states purpose or objective of the study(description of the subjects, description of what was done, summary of important results). 2. Introduction : - (Review of Literature: demonstrates that the current study is related to past research). A statement of Purpose: present a rationale for the current study “current study is connecting to past study”. 3. Method: - explain enough so others can duplicate the study: A. Subjects: (how many, who they were, how selected). B. Design: describe the way groups of subjects were arranged. C. Materials: measuring devices questionnaires, described issues of reliability and validity discussed. D. Procedure: explain how the study was conducted. 4. Results: text, tables and graphs to describe the outcome of the study. 5. Discussion: (a.K.a conclusion) “explain the results in terms of the purpose of the study & some attempt to explain why these results occurred. Possibly suggest future studies. 6. References: list books and other journal articles that the researcher referred to while planning and conducting the study. - There are two type of sources: 1. Primary sources: (someone whose closest to the study) written by someone who witnessed or participated in the event. {Those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study). Also, primary sources provide researchers with “direct, unmediated information about the object of study. “they may contain original research or new information not previously elsewhere. 2. Secondary sources: descriptions of the original work that have been summarized or interpreted. It created after (sometimes a long time after event; may express an opinion or an argument about a past event).  Primary and secondary sources, however, are relative terms, and sources may be classified as primary or secondary depending on how it is used. “Translation might be used as a new work”.  Topic 4 : Literature Review: -General Purposes: 1. Develop an understanding of topic, trends, thinking patterns. 2. Common debates in the area. 3. Gaps in the knowledge base. 4. Define the problem. 5. Review procedures and instruments. 6. Present a discussion of the question under investigation. 7. Develop new ideas to study the topic. 8. Utilize previous researcher’s recommendations for future study. 9. Criticize previous relevant studies and understand contradictor results.  Reasons for References: - To distinguish between facts, speculation and questions. - To identify the source of facts. - To help locate reports in books or journals.  Pyramid Evidence {Health Science}: (from peak- best information, Bottom – least information). - Controlled & Randomized. - Controlled but not randomized {have some exercise in one group and not in other group). - Cohort or case control. - Multiple time series. - Expert opinion.  Information retrieval: - Researchers assume that primary sources have been read/used. - The problem with a secondary source is the transfer of “bias”. - Only use a secondary source if the original is no longer available.  Literature Review: - Process of searching for information and then presenting a summary of the current state of the topic that is relevant to the current topic of research. - Important skill to do effectively and efficiently. - Journal articles can be a poor place to start.  Source of information: - Abstract: “ beginning of paragraph” - Reference books that give reference and brief summary of research reports. - Indexes: “comprehensive list of authors and subjects in a field. - Reviews: an evaluation/ summary of research in a field.  Examples: - Biological abstracts. - BIOETHICSLINE. - ERIC. - MEDLINE. - psycINFO. - Bandolier- evidence based medicine. - NCHS- Health Statistics. - Review pages 79-80.  Evaluating information from the web: - What to consider: A. Authorship: “well known scholar in particular area”. B. Publish body “what the group – agenda”. C. Point of view or bias. D. Referral to other sources. E. Verifiability, F. Currency.  Topic 5: Experimental Research:  Ethics in Research : - Ethics: moral principles or practices. (One is considered ethical if they conform to professional standards; or is described as virtuous or honourable. - Discover of smallpox vaccine & control experiment on scurvy (page 81). - Numberg Code – 1947 “right for experimental subject” – Guidelines to prevent atrocities in human research. - Tuskegee study “ African American being misled with false information regarding their free medical treatment; as long as they anticipate in a research study”.Pg 82-83  Ethics in research: - Informed consent : make the subject aware of what is to be done/ “subject needs to know what is going to be done to them or the participation of the study involve: 1. A fair explanation of the procedures and their purposes. - Example: having you coming to the lab, four times over the course of the semester. And a survey (100 questions) must be answered, in approximately 90 minutes. Upon completion you will get paid 20 dollars. A. Background/invitation to participate; why do the study; why “you” as a subject. - Example: Cont’d; indicate WHY do we want you as a subject? Because you are young healthy white male, and only young healthy white male are foolish enough to be involved. B. Explanation of procedures; explain all procedures in detail “ you need to have good idea of what actually going to occur”. - Example: cont’d; you are going to come in, we are going to strap you in a chair and we are going to spin the chair violently for 30s, when you finish; you will feel nausea in the end of the study. 2. A description of the potential risks and discomforts: A. Physical (pain”Vo2 Max study”, nausea “researchers looking for space travellers”, blood” is your body producing more lactate acid- drawing blood” etc) B. Psychological (anxiety”, fear, etc) “an example: releasing snakes during lab experiments”- purpose to scare you! “Loud noises”. C. Legal (civil, criminal) “investigating Marijuana”. D. Economic (job loss)”participate in a survey and it asks you about your opinions regarding abortion, birth control, religion”. E. Social (privacy issues)” would you like anybody from the class room to know your mark in quiz one ? Probably not!”. F. What treatment if injury occurs?? ” what happened when you fill off the treadmill- train nurse will stich you in, no problem!” 3. A description of potential benefits – should be aware as well: A. Subject or society – don’t overstate. B. If no benefit to either subject or society then it’s not ethical research” we would like you to be in this part of the study, we would like to run you on the wall and see what happens….why? no reason just to see what happens”. 4. Rights of inquiry: ask questions whenever you want and get answers” you as the subject have the right to ask question all the time; why would you put this mask on my face I can’t breathe?! Well, we are doing that because there is a reason for it! Note: some researchers might not be able to provide you with the answer immediately. Instead, they might say: “ in the end of the experiment you will get some answers!”. But. You have the right to ask and to expect the answers!!! 5. Right to withdraw at any time without prejudice; quit whenever you want for whatever reason” you have the right to quit at any time – you can just stand up and say “ I’m out of here, I don’t want to do this experiment anymore, if they ask why? Say I just do want to do it!!!(You don’t need to provide the researchers with any reasons… just leave)”. Now researcher will be losing you as a subject (subject mortality – does not mean you died), just you are missing from their study and it’s going to eventually mess up the study. So they might bribe you, or say please, or try to let you feel guilty for dying people in other part of the world. The most common is bribing you! 6. Disclosure of alternative procedures that may be advantageous (research could say, you could use other method of treatment) “For medical studies involve human health” – suppose you have particular element and researchers are working for a treatment, they have the obligation to say: “ there is another treatment might be used, it might be effective 30% of the time and our treatment effective 60 % of the time, you have the choice; to do A or B! But you can’t say nothing! Then you make the decision. - Examples: 1. Teaching large classes. 2. Drug study “often don’t tell potential side effect- what are the side-effects of doing this particular drug”. 3. Psychology (class) experiment- gives you marks if you participate in experiment. 4. Ethical story in House TV series “ informed consent”: the patient is elderly researcher who is not big in informed consent, will be arguing against informed consent ( talking about Tuskegee, and willow brook institution “{was a state-supported institution for children with intellectual disabilities located in the Willow brook neighbourhood on Staten Island in New York City from the 1930s until 1987. The school was designed for 4,000, but by 1965 it had a population of 6,000. At the time it was the biggest state-run institution for the mentally handicapped in the United States. Conditions and questionable medical practices and experiments prompted Sen. Robert Kennedy to call it a "snake pit." Public outcry led to its closure in 1987 and to federal civil rights legislation protecting the handicapped}.” 5. Dr. Olivieri settlement in dispute with sick kids- the whole ethics of research has been improved substantially in north America, it took Dr. Olivieri 5 yrs to get vindicated and get her job back. “ Article” - Valid “informed consent”
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