KINE 2049 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Absolute Risk Reduction, Relative Risk Reduction, Inductive Reasoning
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KINE 2049 Study Notes
FINDING SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN A LOGICAL, ORDERLY, AND SYSTEMATIC FASHION***
Professions always need research
Never satisfied with status quo – always experimenting
Research done more by computers
Computers work together to process issues EXAMPLE: scientists and researchers hook up online
to fight SARS
Not everyone likes computers: China look at only certain websites – software to protect from
Newspapers make money – greatly exaggerated – only 25% report that they have funding
4 Significant Points in Human History
Language: allowed humans to communicate ideas
Writing: save ideas, pass on generationally (China, India, Egypt – King kept it secret)
Printing Press: mass distribution of ideas, high class rebelled – scientific method comes to be
Computers: allow to store, search, analyse large information, fast – revolutionize
1. Describe why studying research methods is valuable, both academically and in daily life.
research that we further our understanding and knowledge of the world we live in and change
the manner in which we live
a strong foundation for classroom learning and individual research projects
Research helps us find new and more efficient way of doing everyday tasks and professional
endeavours ( Ex. Finding the most efficient way for an elite athlete to raise their VO2Max)
advertisements that are intended to convince us that one product is superior to another or that
a product is effective
by studying research methods we start to develop a more critical thought process and begin
distinguishing factual information from quasi-factual information and opinion not based on fact
BE SKEPTICAL THINKERS
purpose: obtain knowledge develop new
knowledge, modify present knowledge, correct old
2. Identify the sub disciplines that form sport exercise sciences.
A) Adapted physical education: where physical activities and sports are modified to meet needs of the
B) Biomechanics: Is the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, such as humans and
C) Exercise Physiology & Biochemistry: which emphasize the analysis of chronic and acute physiological
adaptations to exercise.
D) Growth & Development: where physical and psychological maturation and aging are related to
E) Sport History: which traces important developments in sport and athletics.
F) Sport Nutrition: where the impact of nutrition on athletic performance is studied.
G) Sport Sociology: which examines the impact on sports and athletics in society.
H) Measurement & Evaluation: in which statistical techniques and procedures for evaluating movement
are developed and assessed.
I) Motor Behaviour: which further divided among Motor Learning, Motor Control, and Sport
Psychology, where the conditions that affect the acquisition and production of skilled motor behaviours
3. State the six steps in research.
(1) ask a new question
(2) make initial observations
(3) conduct a systematic investigation
(4) analyze the new information
(5) interpret the findings
(6) investigate the findings with previous knowledge
4. Define and explain the term theory.
Set of related statements that explains a set of facts
Theories help researchers describe, predict and explain events or behaviours
(1) they help organize information and facts about event and behaviours
(2) they are used to make predictions that provide basis for new research. When the results of
empirical tests support a theory, it is strengthened.
A theory is weakened when tests fail to find results predicted by the theory
Most researchers believe that there are only competing theories of differing levels of
Absolute proof is difficult to achieve because we never know what knowledge the future might
5. Differentiate between a theory and a hypothesis.
Theory: is a statement that organizes a set of related facts
Hypothesis: prediction stemming from a theory - based on existing knowledge(two types)
Directional Research Hypothesis: every research starts – has a direction “ I think smoking bad”
Non directional (Null) Hypothesis: believe that it is neutral then test it – ONLY ONE THAT CAN BE
Ex. The Big Bang theory of the birth of the universe suggests that the universe originated with a
vast explosion of matter. One research hypothesis based on this theory predicts that if the
universe did indeed begin with an explosion, then the universe should be expanding.
Three factors to help evaluate theories
· Precision – how accurately a theory describes behaviour or makes predictions
· Simplicity of a theory – the number of qualifiers or special conditions that must be met before a theory
can be used to make accurate predictions
· Occam’s razor - principle that implies explanations should be kept as simple as possible with the fewest
number of assumptions
· Testability – the extent to which empirical methods may be used to gather evidence about a theory
· Random and blocked practise – blocked practise schedule the learner practises one skill over many
identical trails, random practise – order is continually varied. Research shows that skills are most
effectively learned following a random practise schedule
6. Describe the different levels of knowledge.
a) Description of Behaviour: “50% of deaths in Canada because of Coronary Heart Disease”
simplest form of research knowledge.
no attempt to predict or explain causes of behaviour
comparisons can be made with past measurements so that trends or unusual occurrences can
b) Prediction of Behaviour: “people who die of heart attacks – overweight, smoking, lazy – CHD”
Predictions are more powerful then descriptions
An important step forward in the advancement of knowledge is demonstrating the relationship
behaviours events found to be systematically related to another, then predictions become
c) Control of Behaviour: “exert control – exercise, lose weight, stop smoking, eat right – lower chance of
understand how events are related to each other, we can begin to control events
In order to control, we must understand relationships so we can affect variables to produce the
d) Explanation of Behaviour: “numerous theories of what causes heart attacks – describe what happens
– can’t give cause”
used to explain why these relationships between variables occur or exist
Explanatory knowledge is more difficult to develop than predictive, control, or descriptive
knowledge requires an understanding of the cause and effect relationships