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KINE 2049 1116 2009.doc

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2049
Merv Mosher

November 16, 2009 KINE 2049 .Professor will be sending out on WebCT a list of content for Quiz 2 - everything from the beginning of term until quiz 2 - see it in the e- mail. .Faculty of Health sent out a survey they have asked that you complete the survey. .If you are interested in having things change do the survey. Measurement and Data Collection Concepts >Validity-does the test (study) measure what it is supposed to measure? -e.g. chin-ups to test lower body strength -Internal and External Validity >Internal validity-is it correct to infer a cause and effect relationship? Has researcher controlled all variables? >Face [logical] validity-test appears correct .This means on the surface does it appear that this is correct. >Content validity rationale for each test item. .When you conduct an experiment the experiment has test items. .Do each one of those activities makes sense is there a rationale for them? >Construct validity-test two extreme groups .Honesty is an example of something that cannot be measured correctly. .Sportsmanship is another concept that cannot be measured. .If we take the example of honesty one would expect that people who are in prison are dishonest and perhaps religious leaders might be very honest. .Therefore we test the two groups - one would expect the score for one group to be higher than the other. -Concurrent validity-compare established test to new one (sometimes called criterion validity) .You are getting the same type of measurement using a different type of test. -Predictive validity-test score predicts future performance .Example someone looked at your marks previously and decided that you will be successful in university. .Are these kinds of tests accurate? NO. MCAP, LSAT, GRA etc. Page 1 of5 >External validity-can the results be generalized to other settings? -Was the sample representative of the population? Two broad classes of External Validity- >Population Validity -Generalize from sample subjects to similar population .Professor said for example he takes approx 30-40 students and compare. >Ecological Validity -Generalize from experimental conditions to other conditions. >Reliability-refers to the consistency or repeatability of the data -e.g. measure a board today and then one week later .This would be considered good reliability. >anytime a measurement is made some error introduced, >any obtained score is composed of two elements, the true score component and an error component: >Xo = Xt + Xe >where Xo is the observed score, Xt is the true score, and Xe is measurement error. Test-Retest Method >A test is administered twice to the same group of subjects. >A correlation coefficient computed between the resulting two sets of scores will serve as an indicator of the test's reliability. .Example measuring the heights of various people in the class. .Suppose we are measuring honesty and you score very high on it. .Suppose you do another test and you score poorly - maybe this is not a good test. Split-Halves Method >The rest is split into two parts. Each part is scored and the resulting two sets of scores are correlated. >A knowledge test consisting of 50 items. >The sum of the scores for the odd-numbered trials (items) and the scores for the even-numbered.....(Professor changed slides) >The even-odd split is usually adopted so that the effects of learning from being tested and fatigue are equally represented in both sums of the score for each individual. >Thus two scores (an odd total and even total) are available.... (Professor changed slides) Page 2 of5 .Suppose you are shooting a pistol - two targets shown. Target 1 - Valid and Reliable -shots shown are all close to the bull’s eye Target 2 Reliable BUT not Valid .it is away from the bull’s-eye therefore it is an invalid instrument that you are using. Common Source of Error >These are threats to validity >Maturation-subjects change over time .Th
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