In which of the following is the function of Vit A match to the correct form of
Ans: Retina/Vision (Retinal and Retina make sure you notice the difference)
Vitamin E (antioxidant)
8 different forms
4 are refered as tocopherol and 4 tocotrienols (only difference is tocotrienols have double
bonds but tocopherols don’t have double bonds)
Tocotrienols (don’t have Vit E activity)
Out of the 8 different forms only,
Alphatocopherol ▯only this one has Vit E
Vit E ▯ helps limiting damage done by free radicals
Vit E can help LDL from being oxidized since its dangerous in associated to
Vit E also reduces inflammation
Vit E and cardiovascular link is LDL and inflammation (read slide)
Vitamin Deficiency ▯ is due to factors other than not consuming enough foods with
Other factors include: Lowfat diet (they wont get as much Vit E) ; metal condition
(cystic fibrosis, gall bladder) . Cystic fibroris, deficiency of pancreating lipase (which is
needed for digesting fat) and they wont have enough Vit E.
Erthyrocyte Hemolysis( membrane of RBC breaking down and contents coming out)
individual will develop Hemolytic Anemia (specific anemia)
Vit E DeficiencySymptoms
Fibrocystic Breast Disease ▯nonmalignant breast disease (it can disappear if they
consider enough vit E.)
Toxicity ▯ rare and the least toxic of the fat soluble vitamins
RDA adults: 15mg/day Vit E in Foods ▯
Plant oils (canola and olive )
Excessive heat destroys Vit E . Therefore Fast Foods are not good sources.
Wheat Germ Oil ▯ Very Rich in Vit E
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
History during voyage
If you go to sea for couple of months, (50% chance of dying due to scurvy as they lacked
something in their food).
The longer you stayed the more it was likely you won’t come back.
Fresh food and vegetable were preventing people from dying was because of Vit C.
Anticorbutic factor name was given since it prevented Scurvy.
Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen
and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily
repair the resulting damage.
Vit C helps to protect ions from being oxidized in the intestine. Fe 2+ is best form if it
gets reduced to Fe 3+ (its not good for body)
Free radicals they can do damage to DNA, when you have Vit C it prevents the damage
Vit C also has advantages against Cancer.
Specific amino acids needed hydroxyproline and hydroxy