KINE 4520 May 4, 2011
High level cooperation and competition should neer include conflict and stress. FALSE
Will NOT be T/F from tables or “P.179 there are 18 “tips” for effective coaching.”
-480BC Spartans (first example of cohesive team) they survived even though
competition looked like it would wipe them out. Cohesion became popularized from this?
-Ivan Arreguin-Toft analyzed every war fought in the past 200 years. This social scientist
looked at where one side was 10X more powerful than the other they won 71.5% of the
time. So the underdog won almost one third of the time. He concluded when you
substitute effort for ability as a cohesive group than have a change. This is formula for
success in all forms of human endeavour?(prof doesn’t like when analogies are drawn
between war and sport).
Evolution of a Team
- A collection of individuals - manage weaknesses so do not become ..
- Identity forms through (p.173): A shared sense of purpose, structured patterns of
behaviour, interaction, communication. e.g. badgers -- worked as a team to scare
alligator away whereas 1000s of elk tried to outrun and not be as slow as the one beside
them. It occurs in humans in sport when coach allows it to
- Team chemistry - another word for cohesion.
- “We lost bc. a lack of chemistry and cohesion” - head coach Pat Quinn, CBC sports
interview about men’s 2006 Olympic Team.
- Perhaps not enough time spent on psychological conditioning.
- France soccer team stuck together and remained united against the coach - is that an
example of team cohesion? So they worked collectively towards a specific objective --
was there objective not to win the game though?
- some of the best teams of all time? 92 US mens bball team - had great members but
only 5 on court at time so had to be supported when off the floor (Michael Jordan, Larry
Byrd...). Tennis player (Medel?) constitute a team. Canadian women’s hockey team in
the last olympics. 72’ Dolphins. 1972 Cdn Hockey team - they were booed off the ice in
Montreal and Toronto. University of Buffalo 1958 Conference Champions -- why a
university team -- they were invited to play at the tangerine bowl after winning the
championship and they get money for just competing. African Americans were not
allowed to play in the tangerine bowl. It had two African American players and
unanimously the whole team voted not to go.
- (Hockey part of Cdn identity?)
www.notesolution.com KINE 4520 May 4, 2011
-Miami Dolphins, Yankees, what is it about these team, what do they do, think, or feel
that give themselves a chance to win? It take more than just a group of talented players,
not restricted to sports, bu withsmall grous as well.
-Padraig Harrington (Inidividual team sports -- or “Coactive team sports” - if his score
mattered to country with other players but he also has a Caddie, agent, coach,
psychologist fitness consultant, physiotherapist. Golf player
-teams do not always bring out the best in us. -- Keith Hernandez was captain of the
METS and quoted as saying “I can’t believe we won the world series” the nicknames of
the plaers on the team were “Brawling, bossin, bimbo chasing” was how they were
describes -- the crowds were forgiven of their poor behaviour because they win though.
-Bosh and ___ tall didnt get along off the court but were talented and managed on the
-Definition: Team cohesion “A dynamic process which is reflected in the tendency
for the group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of goals and
objectives.” -- the men’s soccer team in France joined the team to win something - not
get rid of the coach.
What Constitutes a Team
-Five features of a team: interactions, structures, cohesion, goals, identity
- Foresight is a good diagnostic framework to see what has gone wrong - it asks
questions on task cohesion and social cohesion -- can ask the professor to send the
hard copy of the survey
- “Task” Cohesion - how do we work together to achieve the goal we set for ourselves
“the degrees to which member of a team work together to achieve goals.
- “social” cohesion - do we like each other “the degree to which members of a team like
each other and enjoy personal satisfaction from being members of a team.
-which is more important? Does it matter if it is female or male team?
-each player develops perceptions about his/her team
the strength of these perceptions determines why the teams stick together.
-Perceptions - individual attraction (how much do you like playing for the team?), group
integration (how well do u think the team functions?). Does a high positive response to
these questions guarantee success? No
-chinese culture -- more emphasis on collective individualism whereas in north america
individual ambition (get the money, recognition for yourself) but often on team sports.
-Social Loafing - when people work collectively on a common task, they tend to
generate less total effort that if they worked alone. a drawback to teamwork.
-how is cohesion measures?
-(GEQ) Group Environment Questionnaire)the best measure on cohesions - Can ask
professor for this and for a youth one specifically but may cost money. e.g. I am happy
with the team level of desire to win? 1-10
-Coactive team sport - 2002 Ryder Cup -- a golf player talks about teamwork - “we did
everything as a team that is why we won”. Tiger Woods was allowed to practice on his
www.notesolution.com KINE 4520 May 4, 2011
own for the US team but everyone else had to practice together -- this creates problems
-- US lost. Perhaps resentment toward Woods?
-success creates cohesiveness or cohesiveness creates success? Usually
success creates cohesiveness.
-when players given preferential treatment by management it trivializes importance of
teamwork and working hard. (b-ball player -Iverson -- “practice” not talking the game but
about the practice. “how the hell can I make my teammates better by practicing” - now
playing in). if you’re the best player and you’re playing with your teammates it increases
cohesion and they can learn from you. As a coach if you tolerate this behaviour than
other players will lose respect for you.
Reasearch on cohesion: 4 factors
1/ environmental factors - as group size increases cohesion often decreases. Cohesion
also decreases as competition level increases. One reason is that When you become
more skilled similarly in terms of ability athlete hold back more and allow one or two
players take the initiative or lead and they may resent that.
2/ Personal factors - individual satisfaction - the best way to develop cohesion is to
cultivate a feeling of personal satisfaction
3/ Leadership Factors - coaching technique - when athletes contribute to goal setting, a
stronger sense of task and social cohesion exists. So coaches that allow players to give
feedback on what team goals are helps coach. (Gordon Stranchan - profession football
coach in Scotland - some coaches will tell the weakest player mentally and tell him in
front of everyone “I know how brilliant and smart you are mentally” you are telling the
athlete something untrue and other players will resent or not value your word. Prof
thinks you will always revert back to where you are even if coach pumps you up by lying
earlier on -- instead prof thinks you should tell them they need to change ... (hmmmm?)
4/Team Factors - success- highly successful teams are more likely to develop cohesion.
Unsuccessful team - that begin to develop greater cohesiveness improve their chance of
Cohesion and performance are related! There appears to be more support for
“success” leading to cohesion than for cohesion leading to success.
Does cohesion breed success?
Cohesion-performance relationship is strongest when measured a as task rather than
Cohesion-performance relationship is stronger when performance is defined as
behaviour rather than outcome.
Does success breed cohesion?
Research on Cohesion - more strongly related to performance for female teams than for
males. Social cohesion in female teams