MGMT 1050 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Methane, Allan Hills 84001, Hydrothermal Vent

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20 Jul 2016
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NATS1745 6.0 History of Astronomy
Chapter 12 Exam Review
1. What is the van Karman line? What was the first man-made object to breach it? Who
designed this object, and where did he end up working?
-The Karman line is the boundary at which Earth’s atmosphere is too thin for air navigation
-1942: The V2 rocket, a German WWII missile, became the 1st man-made object to breach Earth’s
boundary (I.e., the Karman Line, which is 100km above sea level)
-Werner von Braun, the German rocket scientist behind the V2, surrendered to the U.S. He later became
one of the key architects of the American space program.
2. How were the 1st photographs of Earth taken from space?
1946: V2 rockets were used by the U.S. military to take the 1st photos from the space. Camera attached
to rocket.
3. What kinds of animals were first launched into space by the U.S (after the fruit flies)? What
about the Soviet Union?
Americans sent Monkeys. Soviets sent dogs
4. Which country launched the first satellite into Earth-orbit, and what was this satellite called?
1957: Soviets launched “Sputnik 1”, the 1st unmanned satellite to orbit the Earth. It remained in orbit
for 3 months.
5. Which country launched the 1st human into space? Describe how this trip was made.
Soviets launched Yuri Gagarin into a complete Earth Orbit in 1961. In a capsule with a big window. He
had limited controls but wasn’t allowed to use them. Went to space and orbited the earth and
then was brought down.
6. Which country made the first unmanned landings and orbits of the Moon? What did the Luna
3 take photographs of for the 1st time?
1959: The Soviet’s 3 Luna crafts (unmanned) successfully orbited the moon, landed on it (crashed on it),
and took the 1st photographs of its far side (not visible from Earth due to the Moon’s synchronous
orbit.
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7. Why can't we see the far side of the Moon from Earth? Why is the far side more cratered than
the near side?
We can’t see the far side of the Moon due to its synchronous orbit. Synchronous orbit is when an
objects orbital period and rotation period are equal.
More craters are seen on the far side as craters on the near side have been filled up with lava and
solidified into maria, likely due to the Earth’s gravitational pull on the lava when it was still liquid.
8. Which country made the first manned landing on the Moon? What was this name of the
astronaut who first stepped on the Moon?
(United States) 1969: NASA lands Apollo 11 on the Moon, and astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the
first human to walk on the Moon.
9. What is an orbiter? What is a lander? What is a rover?
Orbiters (crafts in orbit around another body)
Landers (crafts which land on a body’s surface and remain at the landing site)
Rovers (crafts which move across a body’s surface)
10. Which planets in our solar system have been landed on by human-made crafts? Were these
missions manned or unmanned?
Venus and Mars. Unmanned missions
11. What did NASA's Space Shuttle consist of? What was its purpose?
a) NASA's Space Shuttle consists of a rocket, orbiter & re-entry spaceplane
b) It completed over 100 missions such as satellite maintenance, space experiments & trips to the
International Space Station (ISS)
12. What is the International Space Station? What is its purpose?
a) The International Space Station (ISS) is a manned satellite in orbit around earth.
b) The ISS, a habitable satellite for conduction space experiments was launched into Earth-orbit in a
joint-effort by 5 space agencies. It has been continuously occupied for over 10 years.
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