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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Kepler (continued), Galileo.doc

2 Pages

Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1745
Robin Metcalfe

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Kepler 1. Used Tycho’s planter data to discover our modern laws of planetary motion (Kepler’s Laws). 2. NASA named their satellite after Kepler. 3. Kepler was born in Germany; he believed that the spacing of the planets is defined by a series of geometric shapes around the Sun. 4. His mother interested him in the cosmos itself, showing him celestial events at night 5. In university become a great math mind, become obsessed with geometry. 6. There are only five 3D shapes that can be constructed with equal faces (the “perfect Solids”). 7. He proposed: The 5 perfect solids define the spaces between the 6 known planets around the Sun. 8. Planetary distances arising from Kelper’s “perfect Solids” model are nearly consistent with Copernican distances. This strengthened Keplers belief in heliocentric. 9. As a result of the Catholic Reformation, Kepler (a Protestant) moved to prague, where he met Tycho. (1600) 10. Kepler wanted to prove heliocentric and tycho wanted to prove geocentric. 11. To prove his theory Kepler worked with Tycho to use his data. 12. Kepler is known to have poisoned Tycho 13. In 1600 Will Gilbert (English Physicist) showed: The behavior of magnetic compass needles can be explained if the Earth is magnetic felid like a bar magnet 14. Kepler proposed: - Since Earth is a magnet; the other celestial bodies may also be magnets, the Sun being the largest. - The Suns invisible magnetic force may therefore drive the planets on their heliocentric orbits. 15. Kepler placed the Sun off-center (closer to Earth’s winter solstice position) to explain the Sun’s faster apparent speed in winter. - Copernicus had 16. Kepler realized: If the sun drives planetary motion, then an off center Sun must induce non-constant planetary speeds. 17. Since Mar’s orbit is eccentric (non-circular, Kepler was unable to fit mars coordinates to a circular orbit. 18. Having rejected the traditional notions of CCM, kepler was led to his 1st and 2nd laws of planetary motion 19. Semimajor axis: 20. Kepler 1st law: - he orbits of planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. -The more elongated the ellipse, the greater its eccentricity - A circle is a special case of an ellipse with zero eccentricity 21. Keplers 2nd law: - A planets speed varies as it moves around its orbit; it moves faster when nearest the sun (perihelion) and slowest when furthest from the sun (aphelion) 22. 1627: Kepler published the “Rudolphine Tables” , calculated from his 1st and 2nd laws and most accurate planetary tables to date. 23. In keplers “harmony of the worlds” (1619), he showed, the spacing between the planets corresponds to the harmonious music intervals. The led to his 3rd law of planter motion 24. Kepler’s 3rd law: - The square of a planets orbital period is equal to the cube of the size of its orbit (i.e. The more distant the planet is from the sun, the slower its orbital speed.) Parallax: 1. Is the perceived shift of an object relative to its background due to the motion of t
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