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Lecture

Evolution_Lecture_2.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 2420
Professor
David Stamos
Semester
Winter

Description
 David Buss:  Starts with Darwin  Sexual selection  Darwin noticed sexual dimorphism in nature  Some species that the male and female look so different they could belong to different  Darwin though natural selection could not explain it if they live in the same habitat  Developed sexual selection to understand it  His friends who accepted natural selection did not accept this  Partly based on observation  There are two strategies  1) male – male combat  2) female choice (male display)  Male lion mane is for intimidation (size and colour correspond to testosterone level)  Male lion brains have evolved to subconsciously process this  Maybe culture is reflecting biology  Then uses the work of Robert Trivers  Focused on asymmetries, following three are different in men and women  Will result in innate differences in humans  1) minimal parental investment  Purpose is to pass genes on  For a female nine months of pregnancy – physical handicap  2) reproductive capacity  Female has a maximum number of offspring 15  Males, given the possibility, could have thousands  3) paternity confidence  Virtually 100% for women  For men it is much lower  Then takes all of this and asks what should we expect when studying humans  Came up with nine hypothesises  A lot of the support came from studying students  Aware of focusing on one demographic in one culture  Did a mass cross-cultural study  Distinction between short term and long term mating  1) Short term mating is more important for men than women  3) Men seeking short term mates will minimize commitment and investment  4) Men seeking short term mates seek for sign of fertility  5) Men seeking long term mates will seek signs of reproductive value (probability of producing future children)  Infidelity has two kinds:  Sexual  Emotional  Asymmetry in jealousy  For men it triggers paternity lack of confidence  Why is there this asymmetry?  Females are limited in the pursuit of economic progression  Require a males help  Anti-feminist  Luanne Bizendine – The Female Brain, The Male Brain  Social economic indicators - females  Signs of fertility – men  Marvin Harris  Accepts evolution  Says what looks like biology is more often culture  Structural powerlessness hypothesis  Male dominated societies  Those who have more partners succeed more  Bonobos – related to Chimps  More upright walkers  Males and females are both highly sexual  Doesn‟t match up with
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