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Lecture 8

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Political Science
POLS 3260
Saeed Rahnema

POLS 3260- Lecture 8 Exam will be o the 22nd Eight terms picked off of 24, 2 essay questions from 10 options Religious fundamentalism Jewish and Christian fundamentalism –last week Islamic Fundamentalism  History of Islam begins with history of the prophet Mohammed  Born in 570 in Arabia belonging to a major clan belonging to the Koroush family  Mecca at that time was a major city in terms of trade, and also because of the center of polytheism –idol worshipping  Mohammed was against Idol worshipping and he rose against this and as a result he became target of attack by trade caravans (due to tourism), different clans, etc. –beginning of conflict  Mohammed was hired by Khadija- controller of a major caravan company and was promoted and was moving with the caravans through countries  He married Khadija and stayed with him monogamous  After her death he married other women  He had nightly journeys and meditation – this is where it was believed that he received revelations through the arch angel Gabriel  Al revelations hurdled towards a new religion, and as other people heard there was people whom joined him  Immediately he was attacked, he decided to move out of Mecca to the city of Medina  In medina Mohammed gathered more followers/forces and eventually he led the army and attacked and defeated Meccans  Islam became dominant, during his life the whole peninsula converted to Islam  Alike Moses, he was head of state, head of judiciary, and commander of chief, aside from being head of religion  Revelation was written on stone – after his death the Rashidun Caliphs (633- 661) 4 Caliphs during this time – during Abu Bakh and Omar there was some efforts to gather scripture but it was not official  The third caliph ordered the compilation and made official one version  30 years after Mohammed the Quran was born but without vowels and punctuation  20 century Baghdad, this was changed to Arabic  Emergence of interpreters Quran became the scripture and the most important source for Muslims to follow  Consisted of 114 Sura- chapters which are broken down to 6 versus (6600 versus), similar to Torah it has some stories taken from the Torah but there are discrepancies  What to do- rules of living in Quran is small section  Some people argue that Quran was written both in Medina (deal with day to day affairs) and Mecca (spiritual and ethics)  After Mohammed there was succession issues between Ali (son-in-law) and Abu Bakh (first caliph decided by elders)  From inception are two trends: o Literalist- which means literal word by word interpretation of Quran/scripture  Qur’anic orthodoxy, against incorporation of ‘foreign-non Islamic- ideas, against Bid’s (reprehensible innovation)  Qur’an is uncreated and eternal literal interpretation r  Elevation  Abbu Hanifa (700-766)  Imam Maleki argued we should use analogy  Shafi (770-824) mixture of the top two  Ibn Hanbal (780-855) called for return to orthodoxy. He is the forefather of fundamentalism. All the radicals today have their origin in his ideas  Ibn taimiya 1263-1328 Syrian Arab theologians born during the Mongol period a follower of Hanbal. First scholar who comes up with idea that not only should we not support rulers but we should mobilize people against them. Attacked both Jewish and Christian thinkers, philosophers, and followers.  Muhamad Abdalwahha 1703-1792 from Arabia he led a move to purify Islam follower of Hanbali School. He denounds Suffism. Now known as Saffalist o Rationalist- meaning in order to understand Quran you need to use reason  Islamic and other relevant sources of knowledge  For some of these, Quran a divine source but created in the language of humans  Rational interpretation, allegorical reading  Reason
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