PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Encoding Specificity Principle, Long-Term Memory, Procedural Memory

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5 Feb 2013
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Lecture 12
Different Memory Systems
Procedural memory
o Goes by what we do, i.e. typing
Declarative Memory
o Semantic Memory
Involves the memory for general information and for things that we have over-
learned. These memories are not linked with a particular time etc.
Implicit memories incidental memories
o Episodic Memory
Memory for specific events and these are usually unique rather than repeated
ones.
Explicit memories trying intentionally to memorize something
Recall
Inability to recall from long term memory
o The info never made it to LTM (pseudo-forgetting)
o Infor is available but not accessible
Why is info not accessible?
o Encoding specificity principle or concept dependent formation
Questions don’t match during retrieval and encoding
Using an inappropriate search strategy
Interference
More complex the information in the retention interval makes things more difficult to recall
Retroactive interference
o Where new information interferes with the recall of older, previously learned,
information
Proactive interference
o When old information interferes with the recall of newer, recently learned, information
Depth (Level) of Processing
Started in the 1970s
Better recall in Level 3 of memory
o Structural Encoding (Level 1) just need to know structure of the word
Length etc/
o Phonemic encoding (Level 2) process and code according to sound
o Meaning, somantic encoding
Most likely to be remembered
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