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Chapter 7Memory Lecture Part 1.pdf

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PSYC 1010
Jill Bee Rich

Chapter 7-Memory September-06-12 8:22 PM Memory • Getting informationin[ENCODING] • Keeping it there [STORAGE] • Getting it back out when needed [RETRIEVAL] Atkinston & Shiffrin (1968) Model of Memory • Sensory register(Information is coming at you through one of your sensory modalities)-> short-term store( transfers to short term memorythat you are paying attention too)-> long- term store(has to pass through short-term stage before long-term, bring it back into consciousness) Sensory Register • Visual ○ Iconic memory-visualsensory memory  Studied first by tachistosope  Typical paradigm □ Array of letters and digits to Ss on the t-scope for brief durations • Auditory ○ Echoic memory • Duration ○ Approximately250 msec-2sec • Capacity ??? Demonstration • View the display for 1/20 seconds • I remembered4 letters from the first flash • Average~4.5items (37%) • Level of accuracy remained the same whether exposure was 5 ms or 500 ms • Problem ○ Report only one row ○ Signaled which row to be reported after presentation ○ Average=3/4items correct (76%) Conclude: Great deal of sensory info is available in iconic memory This tells us that there's a lot of info available in this iconic memory,but when doing the full report method, not able to report is Iconic Memory-Summary • Lasts about 250 or 300 ms • Capacity ??? ○ Only about 4 items can be reported, but actual capacity is larger ○ Takes time to report what you saw, as you're reporting-what you initially saw is fading ○ Info is erased or overwrittenFPWIK Short-term Memory • Digit span demo-975464196825937148 91382564832759638275316842 • 91534869162 • Capacity ○ Magical number of 7 +/- 2 items • Duration-lasts about 20-30seconds, time held into mind Increasing STM Duration • Rehearsal ○ Maintenance rehearsal-(keep on saying it) ○ Elaborative rehearsal-(attemptto relate info to personal or meaningful material) ○ Rehearsal can sometimescan throw you off ○ JPDCZEVBG(easier)vs. XKDLWFZJE(moredifficult) Acoustic confusions ○ Acoustic confusions  Letters that sound alike confused with each other ○ Rarely structural confusions  Don't confuse letters that look alike ○ Rehearsal=verbalrecitation ○ When people rehears to them selves, they generally rehearse verbally Increasing
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