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Chapter 13.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Chapter 13 The Nature of Stress – any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well-being and that thereby tax one’s coping abilities  Stress tends to be cumulative  Primary appraisal is an initial evaluation of whether an event is o Irrelevant to you o Relevant but not threatening o Stressfull  Secondary appraisal, which is an evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with stress  Acute stressor – threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint  Chronic stressor – Threatening event that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit  Frustration – occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted  Conflict –occurs when two or more incompatible motivation or behavioral impulses compete for expression Conflict of three types developed by Kurt Lewin  Approach avoidance appears to cause vacillation (indecision) Chapter 13  Life changes –are any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment o For example, The social Readjustment Rating Scale (Death of a spouse – 100) o Some positive events that produce change also causes stress  Pressure – involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way  Pressure may be more strongly related to mental health than change is Responding to stress Positive emotional style is associated with an enhanced immune response The optimal level of arousal appears to depend in part on the complexity of the task at hand. o As a task becomes more complex the optimal level of arousal (for peak performance tends to decrease This is known as the unverted U hypothesis Chapter 13 Fight-or-flight – response is a physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) o Autonomic nervous system- controls blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands o Sympathethic divison –controls the flight or fight response o Females carry more of a “Tend and befriend” to optimize the survival of their young General adaptation syndrome – is a model of the body’s stress response, consisting of three stages, alarm, resistance and exhaustion o Alarm reaction occurs when an organism first reconizes the existence of a threat o The stage of resistance – during this phase, physiological changes stabilize as coping efforts to get under way o Stage of exhaustion – hormonal exhaustion There are two major pathways along which the brain sends signals to the endocrine system in response to stress o The first pathways [ hypothalamus -> ANS -> adrenal medulla -> catecholamines ] o The second pathway [pituitary ->ACTH->stimulates adrenal cortex -> releases corticosteroids] Coping – refers to active efforts to master, reduc
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