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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS Wednesday, October 3/10/24, 2012 LEARNING BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE: behaviour is due to environmental histories and consequences  approach is interested in looking at overt/observable behaviour and in determining its antecedents and consequences LEARNING: is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience  grey areas in when you can distinguish when learning has really occurred - Learning vs. performance  if scores are high can you say that they learned and performed well?  if scores are low does performance have to with the way the material was learned? 3 types of learning: 1) CLASSIC CONDITIONING( Pavlov) 2) OPERANT CONDITIONING(Skinner) 3) COGNITIVE CONDITIONING(acquired mental information)  Observational Learning - conditioning= learning of associations CLASSICAL CONDITIONING * is it involuntary or voluntary (operant conditioning) - interested in studying the digestive system of dogs  salivary reflexes in dog  dog began to salivate at the sound of a bell 4 components in which classical conditioning is associated with: 1) UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE(UR)- Respondent behaviour  an automatic on reflexive response that requires no learning  involuntary response 2) UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS(US)  a stimulus that elicits or triggers an unconditioned response 3) CONDITIONED STIMULUS(CS)  starts of being a neutral stimulus  it‟s a stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus, and eventually elicits a conditioned response 4) CONDITIONED RESPONSE(CR)  is elicited or triggered by the conditioned stimulus, and it‟s the same as the unconditioned response (US) [food]------------- (UR) [salivation] (neutral) [bell] + [food] (CS) [bell] ------------- (CR) [salivation] E.g. (US) [slap]------------- (UR) [flinch] (neutral) [hello] + [slap] (CS) [hello] ------------- (CR) [flinch] PHOBIAS - Watson “Little Albert” with no fear of the mouse, when the bang of the gong was sounded, it created a startled response when albert took the mouse (US) [gong]------------- (UR) [fear] (neutral) [mouse] + [gong] (CS) [mouse] ------------- (CR) [fear] - we develop phobias that are adaptive from an evolutionary point of view  prepared learning HIGHER- ORDER CONDITIONING: when a well- established conditioned stimulus 1(CS1) starts acting as though it were an unconditioned stimulus(US), and is able to bring the conditioned response(CR) under the control of condition stimulus 2(CS2)  introducing a new stimulus such as a „light‟( paired with the bell, in Pavlov‟s example) (US) [food]------------- (UR) [salivation] (neutral) [bell] + [food] (CS1) [bell] ------------- (CR) [salivation] ------------------------------------------------------- [light] + [bell] (CS2) [light] ----------- (CR) [salivation] – weakens {higher-order conditioning} STIMULUS GENERLIZATION: when a conditioned response(CR) occurs in response to other stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus(CS) used in acquisition (training phase)  the greater the similarity the more likely the generalization  being afraid of a car, big dog breed etc. (US) [food]------------- (UR) [salivation] (neutral) [bell] + [food] (CS) [bell] ------------- (CR) [salivation] 800Hz -------------- generalization has occurred [salivation] 700Hz -------------- generalization has occurred [salivation] STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION: when a conditioned response is elicited only in response to a conditioned stimulus that was actually paired with the unconditioned stimulus during training or acquisition (US) [food]------------- (UR) [salivation] (neutral) [bell] + [food] (CS) [bell] ------------- (CR) [salivation] 800Hz -------------- discrimination has occurred [salivation] 700Hz -------------- discrimination has occurred [salivation] EXTINCTION: when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) over a period of time the conditioned stimulus (CS) will elicit a conditioned response (CR) that gradually weakens and disappears  You must experience the phobic stimulus in order for it to disappear and in turn, face your fear SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY: is a reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response (CR) when exposed to the conditioned stimulus (CS) after a “rest period”  Will be weaker than what it was originally *Short answer question on test #2 CONTIGUITY: when two stimuli or events occur close together in time they tend to become associated – YOU WILL NOT GET CLASSICAL CONDITIONING - Pavlov believed two things about contiguity: 1) For classical conditioning to occur the unconditioned stimulus (US) and conditioned stimulus (CS) must be contiguous 2) If any unconditioned stimulus (US) or conditioned stimulus (CS) are contiguous classical conditioning will occur Challenge for Pavlov’s Theory (Garcia) 1) (US) [X-Rays]------------- (UR) [nausea] (Neutral) [Solution] 7 hr [X-Ray] (CS) [Solution] ------------- (CR) [nausea] -? Prepared learning? 2) (US) [X-Rays]------------- (UR) [nausea] (Neutral) [Water/light/noise] + [X-Ray]  compound stimulus Water ------------- nausea (CR) – prepared learning Light -------------- no {should get a nauseated response} Noise ------------- no E.g. (US) [Shock]------------- (UR) [fear] (Neutral) [Water/light/noise] + [shock] Water --------------- no Light ---------------- fear (CR) {preparedness to associate specific elements with Noise --------------- fear (CR) another} COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING - Early behaviorists underestimated the importance of biological constraints on behaviour and cognitive processes  some animals are less/more easily interpreted - Rescorla argues that we create
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