Appendix B Notes:
Statistics: Is the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data.
Frequency distribution: An orderly arrangement of scores indicating the frequency of each
score or group scores.
Score Tallies Frequency
6 1 1
5 111 3
4 1111 4
3 11111 5
2 111 3
1 11 2
0 11 2
Column on left shows possible scores (estimated hours of TV viewing) in order.
Column on the right lists the number of subjects or participants with each score
Histogram: a histogram is bar graph that presents data from a frequency distribution.
Descriptive statistics: Are used to organize and summarize data.
Measuring central tendency
Median: the score that falls in the centre of distribution
Mean: is arithmetic average of the scores
Mode: the score that occurs the most
Negatively skewed distribution: most scores pile up at the high end of the scale Positively skewed distribution: scores pile up at the low end of the scale
In symmetrical distribution the 3 measures of central tendency CONVERGE, but in
negatively skewed or positively skewed the mean, modem and median are pulled apart,
In such situation, the median provides the best index of central tendency
Variability: refers to how much the scores tend to vary or depart from the mean score.
Standard deviation: an index of the amount of variability in set of data.
Normal distribution: is symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that