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Chapter 12,13 Notes summarized

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York University
PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkin

Chapter 12 – Personality Freud: - Believed that an unconscious part of the mind exerts a great influence on behavior - Psychic energy: generated by instinctual drives is released indirectly or directly - 3 structures of personality: Id, ego, and superego Id: - exists in the unconscious mind. - Only structure present at birth - source of all psychic energy - No direct contact with reality - Operates according to pleasure principle: “Want it…Take it” Ego: - Conscious part of the mind - Operates according to the reality principle: tests reality to decide when and under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs. - Tries to delay pleasure until conditions are safe and appropriate - Must compromise between the demands of the id, the restrictions of the superego and the demands of reality Superego: - the moral arm of the personality - developed by the age of four/five - Strives to control the instincts of the id - tries to block pleasure permanently - may cause a person to experience guilt over sexual activity even within marriage because it has internalized the idea that sex is “dirty” Conflict, Anxiety, and Defense When the ego challenges impulses that threaten to get out of control or is faced with dangers from the environment, it results in anxiety. Anxiety motivates the ego to deal with the problem at hand. Defense mechanisms permits the release of impulses from the id in disguised form that will not be conflicted by the external world or the superego. In repression, the ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety arousing memories, feelings and impulses from entering consciousness, they remain in unconscious, may be released by slips of the tongue or in dreams. In denial, a person refuses to acknowledge the situation. In displacement, an unacceptable of dangerous impulse is repressed, then directed at a safer target. In projection, an unacceptable impulse is repressed, the attributed to other people In rationalization, a person constructs a false but plausible explanation that has already occurred. In reaction formation, an anxiety arousing impulse is repressed, and its psychic energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behavior In sublimation, a repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially acceptable or even admired behavior. Psychosexual development - Freud believed that personality is molded by experiences in the first years of life. - According to Freud’s theory of Psychosexual development, we develop our personality as we pass through a series of discrete developmental stages, each defined by a erogenous zone, a bodily source of pleasure. If there is either more or less pleasure at a particular stage fixation at that stage occurs and adult personality is affected. - Freud lacks the support that the idea that personality development unfolds in the manner theorized by him. Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory - Hard to test because it explains too much to allow clear cut behavioral predictions Neoanalytic - Neoanalysts believed that Freud did not give social and cultural factors an important role in the development of personality. - They believed that he stressed infantile sexuality too much - Agreed that childhood experiences are important but some of them believed that personality development continues throughout life span - Adler, said that humans are motivated by social interest, the desire to advance the welfare of others. String for superiority: which drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves and to strive to be ever more competent in life. - Jung developed the theory of analytic psychology. He believed that humans posses not only a personal unconscious based on their life experiences, but also a collective unconscious that consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race. These memories are represented by archetypes, inherited tendencies to interpret experiences in certain ways. The Humanistic Perspective - Humanists embrace a positive view that affirms the inherent dignity and goodness of the human spirit. They emphasize the central role of conscious experience, as well as the individuals creative potential and inborn striving for self actualization, the total realization of one’s human potential. - Rogers believed that our behavior is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment. He believed that the forces that direct behavior are within us and that, when they are not distorted or blocked by our environment, they can be trusted to direct us toward self actualization. The self - Rogers central concept is the self, an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself. Self plays powerful role in guiding our perceptions and directing our behavior. - We have needs for self consistency(an absence of conflict among self perceptions) and congruence(consistency between self perceptions and experience). - Any experience that we have that is inconsistent with our self concept is threat and evokes anxiety. Can lead to problems in living. EXAMPLE: a man who thinks of himself as attractive, charming and he thinks that every women finds him irresistible. This is his self concept of himself. He meets a woman who he thinks is very attractive but she shows him a lack of interest. This is a threat to his self concept and his experience. He might resolve this by distorting reality. He may deny the womens lack of interest(she’s jut playing hard to get) or he might distort his perception of the women(she would have to be crazy to not appreciate how special I am- thank heaven I found out in time). Levels of adjustment - maladjusted: deny or distort reality to be consistent with self concept - Healthy adjustment: experiences are easily incorporated into self concept Positive Regard - acceptance of love, sympathy from others - essential for healthy development - Unconditional positive regard: communicates that the child is always loved - Conditional positive regard: depends on how the child behaves Fully Functioning persons - People who had achieved self actualization - Sense of inner freedom, accept inner and outer experiences as they are Self esteem - how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves - high self esteem: don’t give in to social pressures, few personal problems, happy with their lives - poor self esteem: anxiety, depression, poor social relationships, underachievement Trait and Biological Perspectives Two approaches for the building blocks of personality: 1. propose traits, ex: dominance, friendliness, self esteem, based on a theory of personality 2. Factor analysis: find correlations among behavior Ex: people who are socially reserved, avoid parties, and like quiet activities, and enjoy being alone. Eysenck’s Extraversion stability model Behavioural patterns define a general factor as Introversion or extraversion. Introversion - Retiring, reserved, likes solitary activites, does not attend parties Extraversion - outgoing and talkative, wants many friends, enjoys parties, dislikes being alone The five factor model - openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism Evaluating Trait Approach Pros - focused attention on value of identifying and measuring personality dispositons Cons - describes structure of personality and individual differences - cannot explain psychological mechanisms that produce traits Social Cognitive Theories - believe that behavior cannot be explained by external or internal factors alone - Reciprocal determinism: the person’s behavior and the environment all influence one another in a pattern and are linked - Expectancy: is our perception of how likely it is that certain consequences will occur if we engage in a particular behavior within a specific situation - Reinforcement value: is basically how much we desire or dread the outcome that we expect the behavior to produce - Internal external locus of control: an expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives. Internal: believe that life outcomes are largely under personal control and depend on own behavior. External: believe that in luck, chance. - Self Efficacy: a key factor in the way people regulate their lives. Their beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviours needed to achieve desired outcomes. High self efficacy: confidence in ability to do what it takes to overcome obstacles and achieve goal. Affect self efficacy beliefs - performance beliefs: pervious success and failure experiences on similar tasks - observational learning: observation of the behaviours and consequences to similar models in similar situations - verbal persuasion: encouraging or discouraging messages received from others - emotional arousal: arousal that can be interpreted as enthusiasm or anxiety Personality Assessment - Remote behavior sampling: collect samples of behavior from people as they live their daily lives - Rational approach: items are based on the theorist’s conception of the personality traits to be measured - Empirical approach: items are choosen to differentiate two groups that are known to differ on a personality variable - Projective Tests: presented with stimulus Chapter 13- Psychological Disorders - The Demonological View: abnormal behavior is caused by supernatural forces - A treatment for disordered behavior was trephination: a hole in the skull to release evil spirit - Early biological view believed that disordered behavior was a sickness that affect the brain. General Paresis: caused by syphills. Psychological disorders can be linked to physical causes. - Freud convinced that psychological disorders are caused by unresolved conflicts from childhood that make the person vulnerable to certain kinds of life events. - Neurosis: inappropriate use of defence mechanisms - Psychosis: withdrawal from reality. Ex: schizophrenia - Vulnerbility Stress Model views behavior disorders as resulting from an interaction between personal vulnerability factors and life stressors. o Vulnerability factors: genetic factors, biological characteritics, psychological traits, low social support o Stressors: economic adversity, environmental trauma, personal stresses or losses, occupational setbacks or demands Defining and classifying psychological disorders - whether a behavior is or is not considered abnormal it involves a social judgement made on the basis of the three ds o Distressing to self or others o Deviant: violates social norms o Dysfunctional for person or society Diagonising Psychological Disorders - The Diagnostic and Statisical Manual of Mental Disorders has a list of behaviours that must be present in order for a diagnosis to be made - The DSM uses a five axis system to arrive at a diagnosis that takes into account personal and environmental factors that affect behavior o Axis 1: Panic disorder. Primary diagnosis o Axis 2: Dependent personality disorder. Personality/developmental disorders o Axis 3: High blood pressure. Relevant physical disorders o Axis 4: Severe stressors: divorce, job loss. Severity of psychosocial stressors o Axis 5: Serious symptoms: fair overall functioning. Global assessment of level of functioning. Critical Issues in Diagnotic Labelling - Competency: means that the individual is in sufficient contact with reality to understand the legal proceedings. - Insanity: refers to an inability to appreciate the wrongfulness of one’s act and control one’s behavior at the same time the crime was committed. Anxiety disorders - have four components o a subjective emotional component: including feelings of tension o a cognitive component: worry, a feeling of inability to cope o physiological responses: increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, rapid breathing, nausea, dry mouth, diarrhea, frequent urination o behavioural responses: avoidance of certain situations and impaired task performance - Phobic disorders are strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations - Generalized anxiety disorder: a chronic state of diffuse or “free floating” anxiety may last for months on end, with the signs continuously present. - Panic Disorders:occur suddenly, unpredictably, intense. May occur with or without agoraphobia: fear of open places. Fear of future attacks. - Obsessive compulsive disorder: consists of two components. o Obsessions: cognitive part. Repetitive and unwelcomes thoughts o Compulsions: behavioural part. Repetitive behavioural responses. - Neurotic Anxiety: occurs when unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego’s defences and explode into action. - Cognitive Explanations: thought patterns and beliefs that influence development of anxiety - Culture bound disorders: disorders are culturally bound. Fear of offending someone, being possessed, being fat. - Anorexia Nervosa: intense fear of being fat and severely restrict their food intake to a point of starvation. - Bulimia nervosa: concerned of becoming fat, but instead of starving they eat and then vomit the food - The causes of these two eating disorders are because of environmental, psychological and biological reasons. Mood disorders - Mood disorders: involve depression and mania(excessive excitement) - Major depression: Minor set back or loss that leaves them unable to function effectively in their lives. - Dysthymia: exhibit less intense forms of depression that has a less dramatic effect on personal and occupational functioning. Occurs for years with normal mood that never lasts more than a few weeks or months. - Bipolar disorder: depression alternates with mania, a state of highly excited mood, rapid speech. - Genetic factors: 67% in identical twins, and 15% in fraternal twins - Learned helplessness theory: holds that depression occurs when people expect that bad events will occur and that there is nothing they can do to prevent or cope with them. - Lewinsohn’s Behavioural model of
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