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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

Motivation and Emotions Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory: There is a different physiological state for each emotion you experience. Cannon-Bard Theory: Fight or flight response. Adrenaline = flight, Noradrenaline + adrenaline = fight Two Factor Theory of Emotion When the subject was given epinephrine (of which they did not know the effects), their mood switched from positive to negative, when a confederate was seen as happy or sad, respectively. When the subjects were not given epinephrine (a neutral drug, placebo, instead was given) no mood changes were examined. The two factors that affect emotion 1. Autonomic Arousal 2. Cognitive interpretation of that arousal Applications of the two-factor Theory  Ovid (how to make women fall in love with men)  Becker’s finding regarding marijuana use and various psychological situations (traumatic reactions, depression, etc.) The Cognitive Component  Highly personal and subjective  Psychologist rely on verbal reports  People’s cognitive appraisals of events in their lives are key determinants and aspects of the emotion they experience. The Physiological Component:  Emotions are accompanied by visceral arousal  Autonomic nervous system and the fight-or-flight response, which can be measured  Measured by GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) part of lie detector test (measures autonomic changes) Affective Neuroscience Emotion depends on activity in a constellation of interacting brain centers Thalamus sends information to cortex and amygdala Prefrontal cortex seems to process the meaning of emotional events and voluntary control, pursuit of goals This sort of processing may be too slow to react to immediate dangers Amygdala’s Central Role  Lies at core of complex set of neural circuits the process emotion in which sensory input is sent, via the thalamus, to both the amygdala for fast processing and the cortex  Part of fast pathway triggering neural activityautonomic arousal hormonal response.  Highly adaptive warning system independent of cognitive awareness The Behavioral Component  Overt expressions such as “body language” or “nonverbal behavior”  Facial-feedback hypothesis (if you force yourself to smile you will feel happy regardless of your initial mood) asserts that facial muscles send signals to the brain that help brain recognize the emotion that one is experiencing.  Evidence that facial expression of emotion is largely innate  Cross-cultural similarities and differences  Cross-cultural differences indicate evaluations on similar dimensions but differences in how people think about and express emotions  Motives are: Hypothetical constructs  The “why” or “cause” of behaviors - Why do some employees accept the goals of the organization and their supervisor and reject them? - Why do some employees work hard while other appear lazy and uncooperative? Goal directed behavior Push-pull theories Drive Theories (“Push theories”) Drive: an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce tension. Eg.wanting water when you’re thirsty  homeostasis: a state of physiological equilibrium or stability Incentive Theories (“Pull” theories) e.g. you smell pizza and want to eat even if not hungry  Incentive: an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior  expectancy X value models (EP, PO) Needs Theory Vs Process Theory (i.e. What Vs How) Determinants of sexual Desire Horm
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