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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 – Evolution of Psychology.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Xueda Song

Chapter 1 – Evolution of Psychology Pg 1-9 th  Psychology is derived from classic philosophy and 19 century philosophy and physiology, disciplined that shared an interest in the mysteries of the mind  Psychology became an independent discipline (used to be a sub child of philosophy & physiology) when Wilhelm Wundt established the first ever psych research lab in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany  Psychology – scientific study of consciousness or study of the mind  Psych grew rapidly in N.A. by the late 19 century, thanks to G. Stanley Hall’s career (student of Wundt)  Hall established America’s first psych research lab and founded the APA  Structuralists, led by Edward Titchener, believed that psych should use introspection to analyze consciousness into basic elements o Structuralism – belief that psych should analyze consciousness into basic elements and their interrelations (structure) o Introspection – careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience  Functionalists, inspired by the ideas of William James, believed that psych should focus on the purpose and changing functions of consciousness o Functionalism – belief that psych should investigate function and purpose of consciousness, not structure  Paved the way for behaviourism and applied psych  Behaviourism – study of observable reactions and actions, rather than unobservable thoughts  Behaviourists, led by John B. Watson, argued that psych should study only observable behavior o Campaigned to redefine psych as the science of behavior  Emphasizing the important of the environment over heredity, behaviourists begain to explore stimulus-response relationships (SRR), using lab animals as objects Pg 9-15  Sigmund Freud was an Austrian physician who invented psychoanalysis o Psychoanalysis basic ideas:  Besides inherited personality, human development is determined by events in early childhood  Human behavior, experience and thought is largely influenced by
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