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October 28, 2013 Modules 11,12.docx

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PSYC 1010
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Psychology 1010 – Behaviour genetics and evolutionary Monday October 28, 2013 Module 11 -Genes are the building blocks of heredity and development • Human genome hold 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) • Sperm and eggs only have 23 chromosomes o When connected adds to 46 chromosomes • Males have XY and female XX -Human Genome Project • Published in 2001 which found 25000 genes • .001 percent difference in genome, your DNA would be different than other people • .05 to 4% u would look like a monkey -Genotype: Specific genetic makeup, present from conception, never changes -Phenotype: Observable characteristics, can be altered by other genes, environment, • How tall you can grow compared to how tall you actually grow -How genes Work: genes are not blueprints they are molecules, these molecules have the ability to direct the assembly of proteins that build the body -Dominant, Recessive and Polygenic • Characteristic displayed if: o Dominant gene from either parent o Two recessive genes (one from each parent) o Polygenic transmission (multiple gene pairs influence phenotype) -Genetic Engineering: • Recombinant DNA procedure o Enzymes cut DNA o Combine with DNA from another organisms (inserted into host cells) • Gene knockout o Particular function of gene is eliminated by preventing neuronal response to a particular neurotransmitter • Problem o Few behaviours are controlled by single gene o Knocking out a particular gene could disrupt wide range of functions • Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins (identical vs. fraternal) o Studies show that identical twins and more alike than fraternal twins in:  Personality traits, behaviours/outcomes, abilities o Similarities found even though they could grow up in different homes • Study of genetic relatedness: with parents and siblings (50%), grandparents (25%) • Concordance rate: rate of co-occurrence of a
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