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November 4, 2013 Modules 13,14.docx

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PSYC 1010
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Psychology 1010 Modules 13, 14 Monday November 4, 2013 Module 13 -Developmental Psychology: changes in biological, physical, psychological and behavioural processes -Issues: Nature vs. Nurture, Critical and sensitive periods (age where experiences must occur), sensitive periods (optimal age range) -Developmental functions: how processes change • Stability vs. Change: do things remain constant, • Continuity vs. Discontinuity: gradual or stages? o No change: remains constant o Continues: gradual changes o Stages: discontinues changes o Inverted u shape: emerges early – peaks – diminished with age o U shape function: emerges early – disappears – re emerges -Continuity vs. stages • Researches who see development as a function of experiences tend to see development as continues and gradual o Nurture is continues o Nature has stages • Stages: 3 different types of development o Lawrence Kohlberg: o Erik Erikson o Jean Piaget -Prenatal Development: 3 stages • Germinal: first two weeks, Zygote attaches to uterine wall nd th • Embryonic: 2 – 8 weeks, differentiated cells develop into organs and bones, placenta and umbilical cord develop th • Fetal: begins 9 week, by 6 months fetus might be able to survive outside the womb • Genetics and sex determinants: XX or XY (Y chromosomes contains TDF, initiates testes growth) • Environmental influences: o Teratogens: environmental agents that cause abnormal fetal development o Maternal malnutrition: miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth, impaired brain damage o Maternal stress: premature birth, infant irritability, attention deficits o Rubella: can severely damage developing nervous system o STDs” brain damage, blindness, deafness, HIV positive o Alcohol: FAS- fetal alcohol syndrome, FAE- fetal alcohol effects o Nicotine: miscarriage, premature birth, low birth rate • Fetal Life: o responding to sounds: can learn to recognize and adapt to sounds previously heard only in the womb (parents voice sounds familiar) • Inborn Skills: o reflexes are responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned (they have reflexes to make sure they get fed) o The rooting reflex: when something touches a newborns cheek, the infant turns toward that side with an open mouth o The sucking reflex: can be triggered by a fingertip o Crying when hungry: is the newborn talent of using just the/ o right sounds to motivate parents to end the noise and feed the baby • Fetal learning: habituate to repeated presentations of stimuli, newborns prefer sounds that are familiar to them during fetal development -Amazing newborn: • tactile, auditory, and chemical perceptual senses operating at birth • Visual system is poorly developed at birth (legally blind at birth) o Prefer patterned stimuli, or mothers face o Colour vision: green, yellow, red o Constancies: shape and size o Habituation procedure  Looking time declines to 50%  New stimulus presented • Vision: 3-4 months = organized according to Gestalt principles (subjective contours, closure, etc) • Audition: sound localization, phoneme discrimination (exceeds that of an adult), music perception • Can do simple observational learning: you can teach newborn to stick their tongues out Module 14 -Physical Development: • Maturation: refers to changes that occur primarily because of the passage of time • Cephalo-caudal principle: developmental proceeds from head to foot (head is large at birth) • Proximo-distal principle: development proceeds from innermost to outer (arms before fingers) -Brain: at birth is about 25% of body weight, 6 months = 50% of adult’s brain weights • In the womb, the number of neurons grows
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