PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Schizophrenia, Psychosexual Development, Paranoid Schizophrenia

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9 Apr 2012
Lecture March 11th
2:10 PM
Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological
There will be a 3 part short answer question on therapies (this
whole lecture) in the exam!!!!!
Freud is given credit to develop psychotherapy (Any
treatment in psychology is called psychotherapy).
Therapies fall in one of the following categories:
1. Insight Therapy ("talk" Therapy)
A lot of dialogue between therapist and the
To us, it might look like they are talking normally.
Patient suddenly gains the knowledge of their
problem while talking.
Sometimes therapist does a lot of work, whereas
sometimes the patient does the work and therapist
takes the indirect way.
2. Behaviour Therapy
Any therapy that uses learning principles.
They are interested in overt behaviour, not so
much emotions.
Their goal is to treat the overt problems, not
emotional ones.
3. Biomedical Therapy
e.g.: shock therapy (ECT).
Most of the people who visit therapists are not clearly
diagnosed beforehand, and the therapist is left with
completely figuring out everything just based on the
talking or other methods they have available.
Men are less likely to get help.
Eclectic therapy : using a mixture of therapies from
different disorders to treat a patient.
Unless the patient is motivated and is willing, as well as
they acknowledge that they have the problem, it is not
possible to treat.
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Behaviour Therapy
Some basic assumptions of behaviour therapy:
i. Maladaptive behaviours are acquired through
faulty learning and behaviour therapy attempts to
help the patient un-learn that behaviour.
ii. You don't need to find the underlining cause-
just treat the symptom. e.g.: someone having
phobia of dogs. Behaviour therapist doesn't care
how the patient got it, all they care about is curing
the phobia.
There are several types of behavioural therapies:
Systematic Desensitization (Wolpe 1958)
First alternative to the traditional insight
Set up an anxiety hierarchy.
Therapist can do this along with the
patient, or tell them to do it over the
e.g.: someone with fear of snakes.
Patient is asked, "Think of some situation
when a snake won't cause anxiety." The
patient says, "when I read kids story books,
snakes in there don't bother me." this will
be the first item in the hierarchy.
Something like "forcing a snake down their
throat" would be the last item (on the top)
of the hierarchy.
Train the patient to relax.
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Some people think they are relaxed, but
they might not be.
These exercises make sure that the
patient is completely relaxed.
e.g.: A contrast technique. Clench the
hand muscles, and then relax.
iii. Think of images in the hierarchy while
They try to make the items in the
hierarchy as realistic and vivid as possible.
If you get through it without anxiety,
you move up.
The point at which patient feels anxious,
he/she tells the therapist. Then they move
down again to the item which didn't cause
any anxiety. Then move up again.
This therapy can go on for weeks and
Eventually, you will get to the top of the
hierarchy where the patient won't feel any
An additional step:
In vivo situation:
The patients are made to actually face
their problem. e.g.: bringing an actual
snake in the room.
This can be seen as above the imagining
hierarchy items (#21, 22, ... ).
Note that spontaneous recovery can happen
.e.g.: someone treated for phobia of dogs has
another nasty experience with dogs.
A good idea is to follow-up for couple of
months and make sure the patient is fine.
Learning Principles that make SD Effective
(WHY does this therapy work?)
People have different opinions about it
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