PSYC 2110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Parenting Styles, William Damon, Diana Baumrind

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2110
Professor
Class Notes December 2nd, 2010
Parent and Peer Relationships
1
- Dual connection of connectedness and separateness that begins from the moment of birth and remains with us
through life
- 2 social worlds of childhood: 1) adults 2) peers
- Different types of goals/interactions/relationships with the parents and peers
Parenting Styles and Preschool Children
Diana Baumrind, 1967, ’69, ’71. ’73. ‘77
- Comprehensive study of child rearing practices
- Different parental behaviour, and children’s success in adapting their everyday activity
- Adaptive traits = assume all parents to encourage their children
- These traits are called instrumental competence (goals to want children to be instrumentally competent)
Instrumental competence
Social responsibility = friendly, not hostile to other. Facilitative and not disruptive of others work. Cooperative.
Participating in a positive way
Independence = behaviour which is ascendant rather than submissive, purposeive as opposed to aimless, self-
determining as opposed to conforming
Achievement orientation = achieve academically, seek intellectual stimulation and challenges, and try to solve
problems in a persistent and efficient way, as opposed to in impulse
Vitality = child will have a certain level of biological energy and vigorous appearance
- Interested to see what parenting skills to promote instrumental competence
4 dimensions of parents
Parental Control
o Display in parents’ active attempt to influence child’s behaviour
o Parental standards, can be a measure of disciplines
Clarity of communication
o Offering reasons for any restrictive measures that are taken
o Listening to the children’ opinion and feelings when family decisions are being made
Maturity Demand
o Parental pressure in order for children to behave in an appropriate way (emotionally academically
socially) expectations parents have for the children
Nurturance
o Warmth, involvement in caretaking, parents express concerns for the child’s wellbeing and pleasure in
child’s accomplishment
- Find clusters of these dimensions that go together
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Class Notes December 2nd, 2010
Parent and Peer Relationships
2
Control (Hi/Lo) Clarity of Communication (Hi/Lo) Demand (Hi/Lo) Nurturance (Hi/Lo)
Authoritarian = control, military
Authoritative = well-disciplined, explains the conditions of the rewards/punishments
Permission = spoil the child
Neglecting = no concern with child
Control
Clarity of
Communication
Maturity of Demand
Nurturance
Authoritarian
High
Low
High
Low
Authoritative
High
High
High
High
Permissive/Laissez-
faire
Low
High
Low
High
Neglecting
Low
Low
Low
Low
- Uni-directional model (parenting style and results on the parents)
Authoritarian parents
- Children are WITHDRAWN = mood is low, low on peer affiliation, low on approach, low on self-reliance, low in
self-control
- Sex difference: (girls) = more dependent on parents, lack achievement motivation (boys) = less likely to develop
self-reliance, and more likely to be angry and hostile
Authoritative parents
- Children are COMPETENT = high in mood/vitality, high in self-reliance, high on approach, high on self-control
- Sex difference: (girls) = more self reliance and self motivation than the boys, more resistant towards their
parents, more challenging (boys) = friendly and cooperative
Permissive parents
- Children are IMMATURE = low on self-reliance, low on self-control, low on approach
- Sex difference: similar to those of authoritarian parenting, but mood tend to be higher
Methodological Problems/Limitations
- Sampling procedure: started with 110 children, but in the end, sample size was 32 children (only wanted
children in the study who demonstrated the clear-cut parenting styles and behaviour)
- Never addresses whether the parenting style of the mother is the same of the father (any incongruity of
parenting style of parents)
- Had a sample of white middle class families (sample)
- Assume uni-directional model, from parent to the children, without taking the account of children’s
temperament and intellectual capability which might affect parents’ behaviour to them (should be more
transactional)
- Only studied the children up to age 8, don’t know if parenting styles have different effects on children as they
reach puberty or adolescence
- Correlational of parent style and children’s behaviour
Lauren Steinberg, Dornbusch, Brown, Mounts, Lamborn = studied 14000 children across US in longitudinal study
(children highschool) address to problems of Baumrind’s short experiment
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Document Summary

Dual connection of connectedness and separateness that begins from the moment of birth and remains with us through life. 2 social worlds of childhood: 1) adults 2) peers. Different types of goals/interactions/relationships with the parents and peers. Different parental behaviour, and children"s success in adapting their everyday activity. Adaptive traits = assume all parents to encourage their children. These traits are called instrumental competence (goals to want children to be instrumentally competent) Social responsibility = friendly, not hostile to other. Independence = behaviour which is ascendant rather than submissive, purposeive as opposed to aimless, self- determining as opposed to conforming. Achievement orientation = achieve academically, seek intellectual stimulation and challenges, and try to solve problems in a persistent and efficient way, as opposed to in impulse. Vitality = child will have a certain level of biological energy and vigorous appearance. Interested to see what parenting skills to promote instrumental competence.

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