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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 book notes.docx

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PSYC 2110
Jean Varghese

Lecture 4 book notes: Reflexes are automatic, unlearned resp • Newborns head is 70% of adult size • Developmental proceeds in cephalocaudal way • Just b/f puberty - center outward growth reverses -- hands and feet, followed by legs, then chest and internal organs • At birth – bones are soft and diff to break • Using skeletal age researchers had found that girls mature faster then boys – 2 years faster at 12 • Skeletal age: a measure of physical maturation based on child’s level of skeletal development • Mid 20’s – muscle mass accounts for 40% of boys and 24% of female weight • Brain and head grow quicker and reach adult proportions • Faster cognition – early maturers • Asians, S.America andAfricans are smaller -- bc of env, diseases climate • Hippocampus – memory • Myelinaziation – process by which neurons covered myelin sheath, protection and facilitate transmission • Average baby has has more neurons that adults • Brain has evolved that it produces excess of neurons and synapses to learn from variety of experiences • Dev of brain = bio + experience • Chimpanzees became blind after 7 months • Synaptic pruning: neurons that are rarely used loose their synapses • Study: kids who grew up in homes of smart people had higher head circumference • Early experiences large determine brains architecture!! • At birth – lower brain centres are most developed • Cerebrum: voluntary movements, perception and intellectual thinking • Only sensory and motor areas function well at birth • By 6 months of age – inbron reflexes disappear as kids develop higher cognitive centres • Myelination - glial cells form myelin, speed up neuron transmission • Frontal cortex not myelinated until puberty • Cerebral cortex – grey matter that controls motor processes and perception • Left cerebral hemisphere controls R side of body - it contains speech, hearing, verbal and language, +VE emotions • Right cerebral hemisphere –controls LEFT side of body – visual info, music, artistic, -VE emotions • Left handed people – right hemisphere controls them!! • Corpus callosum connects 2 brain hemispheres • 2 hemispheres could be biologically programmed to do diff functions by the time the baby is born • Young kids can bounce back from traumatic injuries b/c their brain is not completely specialized • Myelinazation of prefrontal cortex increases attention spam of kids • Brain vol INC early to mid adolescence, dec late adolescence • Size of ERN = correlates with risk taking and social behaviour • Look for plasticity at junction of synapses • # of synapses – length of dentrites • Motor development proceeds in cephalocaudal and proximodistal (trunk and shoulders b/f hand and fingers) • Infants reach toy with feet first - contradicts cephalocaudal development b/c leg to hip joint is more constrained then shoulder joint • Motor development theories • 1. Maturational viewpoint: mot
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