Motivation notes given in lecture
1. Concept of motivation (M): forces acting on or within an organism to initiate action
(p.4). Motivation behaviour (B) displays intensity and persistence.
2. Measurement of M: Not measured directly; manipulate stimulus (S) condition and
observe behavioural response (R) (pg.5).
a) S is a deprivation and speed of running in a maze is R.
b) Infer motivation from change in behaviour.
c) Motivation is an intervening variable (IV): serves to link the S and R as an 2. it
provided an explanation for the relationship between S and R (see fig 1.1 and 1.2, p.5).
d) motivation is a performance variable (PV) when enough is present B is performed.
-Anthropomorphic Fallacy *look up
-desire keeps us motivated
3. Characteristics of motivation:
a. Activation: as in a production of overt and covert behaviour. (p.6)
b. Persistence: as in ongoing performance of B.
c. Vigor: as in forceful behaviour
d. Direct: as in which choice of goal is made. Measure direction in terms of Preference
Test of possible choices (p.7)
4. Categoies of Analysis: study motivation from different viewpoints.
a. Nomethetic: a search for general laws by studying large groups and what holds for
one group may hold for other groups (species; p. 7 and 8)
Idiographic: a search of individual differences or how organisms differ from each
b. Innate vs Acquired: McDougall and James saw motivated behaviour as controlled by
innate motives called instincts.
Acquired motives in contrast are learned and incentive motivation; the value placed
on a goal my be learned and that goal becomes through experience and learning to be
-what differentiates us is that we have a soul or spirit
-soul, mind spirit or essence is psyche -quote: i think therefore i am
c. Internal vs external: needs are sources of motivation and are internal. Deprivation
brings about needs as internal sources of motivated behaviour. Whereas incentives and
goals are external sources of motivation.
d. Mechanistic vs cognitive: are motivational process blind, mechanical, triggered
automatically by internal and external sources without conscious awareness or choice?
are motivational processes Cognitive in so far as conscious choice, and intent. This
approach assumes that the manner in which information is interpreted influences motive
• eg. attributing failure to ability or to luck; does this influence emotion and subsequent
-learned helplessness (they don't have the interest, not motivated, no pride)
5. Levels of analysis:
a. Physiological analysis is concerned with the brain's control of motivated states.
• Which brain structures trigger motivational states?
Study the brain through (1) electrical, (2) chemical, (3) surgical manipulation.
Eg. Olds and Milner's study of 'reward centres' in the brain by (1) implanting electrodes
in selected brain sites. Rats were motivated for hours to receive electrical stimulation in
the septal region of the brain by depressing a lever.
-our explanations are anchored
2) Chemical manipulation by inserting a tube (Canula) into brain sites and releasing
3) Lesion within the brain by removing brain tissue in a given site of the brain.
hipocampus-good for memory -eg a hipocampus was removed and he could retain his
long term memories but couldn't retain the new memories after surgery.
(4) EEG recording of brain wave patterns associated with motivation. PET records of
metabolic activity and MRI visualize areas of the brain (p.9-10)
-when an individual is motivated that individual is aroused.
B. Individual Analysis research aimed at understanding motivational changes due to
internal and external conditions. • In studies of achievement, for example, motivation was inclined by telling subjects that
they had failed an important task, or in aggression studies though different
modelled presentations of aggression (p. 10-11).
C. Social Analysis examines motivational changes, in the presence and absence of
others or situational factors such as at work, school, party.
-we are motivated to belong and not feel rejected and we may go along with something
even if we don't agree with it because we fear social rejection.
-social comparison we see what others are doing and do what they do because we don't
want to be left behind.
D. Philosophical Analysis may view motivation as an aversive state to escape or avoid.
-The motive to avoid failure, pain
• Freud's philosophy presents motivation as tension that must be released and thus
reduced so as to restore equilibrium.
6. Major Constructs:
A. Energy drives, behaviour and specific mechanisms and directs behaviour to different
goals depending on the motive (eg. need) activated.
• General energy -motivational drive is a single source for all behaviour, or
• specific forces behind particular behaviours.
Anhedonia-the person no longer has any interest in the tasks they do now that used to
make them happy, they tend to withdraw, they tend to think about something specific
over and over, certain social withdrawn, social motivation decreases, power motivation
decreases, exploratory (interest) decreases.
B. Physiological Mechanisms assume motivational dispositions are genetically
programmed or "wired-in" to the organism.
This approach takes one of two forms:
1. Instinct approach assumes energy accumulates and leads to a motivational state
responsive to specific stimuli releasing specific behaviours. (e.g. imprinting). And
Evolutionary Psychology emphasizes motivated behaviours as adaptations to
environmental conditions that ben