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Psychology - Personality.docx

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York University
PSYC 2510
Richard N Lalonde

January 30, 2013 Psychology – Lecture 15 Personality  Personality: Distinctive & relatively consistent pattern of behaviours, thoughts, motives & emotions of an individual  Trait: Habitual way of behaving, thinking & feeling; Central & secondary (more changeable) Personality – the beginning  Temperament – physiological disposition to respond to environment in certain ways  Easy, slow to warm up, difficult  Evidence of temporal stability of temperament Measuring Personality Projective tests  Assumption – test taker will “project” unconscious conflicts & motives onto an ambiguous stimulus  Thematic Apperception Test o Tell a story about the “hero” in the picture o Based on Murray’s theory of personality Rorschach – Inkblot test Objective Tests  Standardized questionnaires  Self-report inventories o ‘I am easily embarrassed’ T or F o ‘I like to go to parties’ T or F o Personality self-esteem test – Be a critical consumer!  More reliable & valid than projective tests  Better at predicting behaviour Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)  Most used test in clinical settings  Several scales: 567 items!  Profile of personality  Extreme scores suggest a problem or disorder  Scores compared to norms (n = 2,600)  Validity based on “contrasted groups procedure”  Assessment is interpretive (profile analysis) MMPI Score Profile MMPI Response Bias Scales  4 scales to see if respondent presents self accurately or in a biased wa  Eg. Lie scale – attempt to present self in positive light o “I smile at everyone I meet” (T) Hippocrates (BC) – Personality & Humors: An early trait theory?  Sanguine (blood, air) – optimist  Choleric (yellow bile, fire) – bad tempered  Melancholic (black bile, earth) – depressed  Phlegmatic (phlegm, water) – calm Hans Eysnck – two dimensional trait theory  Extraversion-introversion  Neuroticism  Psychoticism (added 3 dimension) Personality – the Basic Dimensions Factor Analysis  Statistical method that looks at the intercorrelations among # measures  Clusters of measures that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same trait (factor) “Big Five” Personality Dimensions – Costa & McCrea  Extroversion – outgoing vs. shy  Neuroticism – emotional stability  Agreeableness – cooperative & secure  Conscientiousness – responsible, tidy…  Openness to experience – original, questioning… Mnemonic – OCEAN “Big Five”  Distinct & central personality dimensions in many countries around world  Relatively stable over a lifetime o Some dimensions (eg. spirituality, honesty, humility) may be missing o Interpersonal relatedness in China How stable are personality traits? Oishi et al. (2007) found that greater mobility was associated with more of a focus on traits (rather than group memberships) in defining the self. Oishi study: How central are your traits/groups important in describing who you are? Culture and Representation of the Self  Independent self – self is an autonomous collection of stable personality traits; individual goals & wishes prized above duty to others  Interdependent self – self is embedded in relationships; harmony with in-groups is prized above individual goals & wishes o Eg. tachiba for Japanese to perform one’s social roles correctly to have harmony with others Genetic Influences on Personality  Pairs of identical & fraternal twins  Measured on “Big Five”  Suggest that personality difs in population are 40-50% genetically shared  Effect of heredity diminishes with time (1990: meta-analysis of 103 studies) Environment & Personality  We routinely reveal all of the big 5 traits in our everyday behaviour  Vary the expression of our traits by situation o Some trai
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