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Lecture 7

Abnormal psychology 3230 - lecture 7.docx

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York University
PSYC 3140
James Alcock

March 4 , 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 7 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 Mood Disorders  Sad, the blues, down in the dumps, bummed out, broken-hearted, sorrowful, melancholy, grief, depression,  Disturbances in mood it becomes with a disorder when a person has difficulty functioning because of it  Depression is not just “the blues”. clinical depression and the blues Unipolar disorders  Major Depressive Disorder  Dysthymia Major depressive disorder  Depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities consistently for at least a two week period  Occupational, educational or other important functioning must also be negatively impaired by the change in mood  Not due to alcohol, drugs, medical condition or grief at loss of a loved one  Average age of onset 25 years  Emotional symptoms: o Extreme sadness, feelings of worthlessness – if you seriously entertain this feeling then there is a problem o Anhedonia: lack of finding pleasure in anything o Crying spells, or being “unable to cry” -- considered more severe than crying, however we cannot necessarily say that this person is depressed o Loss of feelings of affection for family/friends – pessimistic – they often lose an understanding for how much other people care for them and how much they care for other people (misinterpretation of other people’s feelings – who wants to be around a depressed person?)  Motivational symptoms o Lack of drive; markedly diminished loss of interest in almost all activities o Loss of libido (sexual drive) o Recurrent thoughts of death and suicidal ideation  Behavioural symptoms o Lower activity level o Psychomotor retardation or agitation -- sometimes people move more March 4 , 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 7 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230  Cognitive symptoms o Negative self-image o Negative self-talk o Guilt and self-blame o Confusion, poor memory, indecisiveness  Somatic symptoms o Disturbances in sleep – early morning awakening, insomnia, sleeping all the time o Fatigue, exhaustion o Decrease or increase in appetite; weight change o Aches, pains,  Psychotic symptoms (severe depression) o Delusions o Hallucinations  An estimated 1 in 4 Canadians has a degree of depression serious enough to need treatment at some time in his or her life  Until age 65, twice as many women as men receive treatment for depression. Possible reasons: o The most vulnerable are single mothers with small children o Women are taught to handle stresses differently than men o Female hormones may possibly contribute to high rates of depression o Women may be more likely to seek help  Number of weeks depressed in past 52 weeks March 4 , 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 7 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 o As you get to the upper years, men are more likely to suffer depression than women. Men who are widowers suffer more than widows because men don’t eat, clean, and maintain a social schedule properly Dysthymia  unipolar means you don’t have mood swings  chronic mild depression  less disabling than Major Depressive Disorder  maybe associated with impaired social and/or vocational functioning  Main age of onset: early 20s: symptoms can go unchanged for 20 years or more  onset prior to age 20: greater chronity Theories of Unipolar depression  Psychodynamic o depression often triggered by major loss o due to a series of unconscious processes set in motion when people feel real or imagined (symbolic) loss o e.g. – losing job may be symbolic of losing a partner: “My husband won’t want me if I can’t keep a job”  Behaviour theory o Depressive style of functioning is the result of a significant reduction in the total rate of reinforcements – especially social reinforcements  Cognitive Theory (Beck) o Due to negative and distorted automatic thoughts o “Cognitive triad of depression” – you try to get people to better appreciate what is going on  Negative view of self  Negative view of environment  Negative view of future o Situation, interpretation, emotion, physical reaction, action, outcome o Negative thoughts produce negative feelings and negative actions, leading to negative outcomes o If you get people to change their thinking then their feelings will follow o Physical activity itself helps fight depression – elevation of heart rate – release of certain hormones  Learned helplessness model (Seligman, Peterson, et al) March 4 , 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 7 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 o Dog that does not have a harness can jump over a line and avoid a shock o Human depression can become learned helplessness  Attributions may play a role in learned helplessness o When people perceive circumstances to be beyond their control, they may attribute this to stable, internal causes, leading to depression o An attribution to unstable, external causes may help you avoid it Bipolar disorders  Formally called “manic-depressive psychosis” Bipolar disorders: Mania  May involve frenzy, anger, laughing, binges, racing and disjointed thoughts, agitation, over- talkativeness, impulsivity  May involve delusions (grandeur, erotomania (famous people are in love with you)) or even hallucinations  May cycle from mania to depression, with or without intervening normal periods Bipolar disorders  Questions a psychologists would ask re: mania: o Was there ever a time when you: o Stayed very excited? o Were too happy without reason? o Were too full of energy>=? o Talked too much and couldn’t stop? March 4 , 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 7 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 o Went without sleep for a day or two? o Seemed to be “oversexed”? o Spent money recklessly: gave costly gifts?
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