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13. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders.pdf

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PSYC 3230
James Alcock

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13. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Monday, March 25, 2013 9:00 AM Whatis "abnormal"sexualbehavior? • What is "normal" or "abnormal"? ○ Culturally determined ○ Varies over time in a given society The Manichees • Mani (216-276 CE) • Born in Persia to a family belonging to a Jewish-Christian sect • As a young man, had visionary experiences telling him to leave his father's sect and teach the true message of Christ • Mani claimed to be the Last Prophet promised in the New Testament • Saw his teaching as building on and surpassing the teachings of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism • Manichaeism-- life is an eternal struggle between forces of good and evil • Sex synonymous with darkness; forces of evil imprison light • Human soul trapped in the darkness • Christ could liberate the soul and bring it into the light St. Augustine& The Manichees • Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD) • Wanted to understand the origins of evil • Disappointed not to find an answer in the Bible • Rejected the Old Testament as primitive and immoral • Sexual impulses caused great anxiety • Converted to Manichaeism • Manichaean teachings were a source of comfort-- about sexuality for one thing • Ultimately rejoined the Christian church • A major source of negative attitudes towards sexuality in Western society ○ His views aligned sexuality with sin ○ All sexuality represents a victory of the forces of darkness • [This highlights the arbitrariness of the idea that sex is sinful] Whatis "abnormal"sexualbehavior? • 1962 Eros Magazine began publication in the USA • Artistic, erotic, though very tame by today's standards • Lasted only four issues despite very positive response from public • Publisher Ralph Ginzberg sentenced to 5 years in prison; upheld by Supreme Court; he served eight months and never published another magazine • Nymphomania-- a "sexual deviation" in the first DSM (1951) ○ Almost any woman who seemed to enjoy sex could be called a nymphomaniac by some medical specialist or another; no male equivalent listed ○ In DSM-III (1980), it was listed as a vague "psychosexual disorder"  Nymphomania and Don Juanism-- distress about a pattern of repeated sexual relationships involving a succession of individuals who exist only as things to be used ○ DSM-III-R (revised 1987) dropped nymphomania and Don Juanism  Replaced nymphomania and Don Juanism with "distress about a pattern of repeated sexual conquests or other forms of nonparaphilic [nondeviant] sexual addiction" ○ DSM-IV (1994)-- sexual addiction was abandoned ○ DSM-IV-TR includes miscellaneous diagnosis called Sexual Disorders Not Otherwise Specified • Homosexuality was a mental illness in the DSM DSM-II (1973)-- delisted; replaced by Sexual Orientation Disturbance ○ DSM-II (1973)-- delisted; replaced by Sexual Orientation Disturbance ○ DSM-III-- that was replaced by Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality ○ DSM-IV-- no reference at all • Masturbation was looked upon negatively DSM-IV-TRSexualandGenderIdentityDisorders • Gender Identity Disorder • Paraphilias GenderIdentityDisorder • Person feels trapped in the body of the opposite sex • Usually assumes identity of the desired sex [becomes a transvestite] ○ [Most cross-dressers do not suffer from Gender Identity Disorder] ○ The goal is not sexual • DSM-IV-TR criteria: ○ Long-standing and strong identification with another gender ○ Long-standing disquiet about the sex assigned or a sense of incongruity in the gender-assigned role of that sex ○ The diagnosis is not made if the individual also has physical intersex characteristics ○ Significant clinical discomfort or impairment at work, social situations, or other important life areas • Causes are unclear ○ Gender identity develops early-- 18 to 36 months/age • Sex-Reassignment Surgery ○ Who is a candidate?-- Basic prerequisites before surgery ○ 75% report satisfaction with new identity ○ Adjustment is better for female-to-male conversions ○ Gender reassignment surgery takes years of preparation a
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