PSYC 3410 Lecture Notes - Transactional Analysis, Brief Psychotherapy, Narrative Therapy

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3410
Essential Learning Components in Brief Family Therapy pg 1
INTRODUCTION
- Looks at the 4 delivery formats of Brief Therapy: Frames; Narratives;
Roles; & Pattern Interruption + Feuerstein’s Taxonomy of 13 essential
components to deliver MLE
Kenneth
Ishwaran (1970)
- Argued that “family” is the most important institutions that either
makes or breaks a society, especially a child
Skuy (1992)
- One of the first to talk about widespread cognitive remediation for
deprived people in South Africa
SECTION ONE: DELIVERY FORMATES IN BRIEF THERAPY
FRAMES
- Is a process of creating a story in the present and future tense, as if it is
reality, and the goals have been achieved
White & Epston
Known for:
Narrative Frame
Approach
(NFA)
- Influential in the adaptation of the FRAMING/NARRATIVEmetaphor
which attempts to create “stories” about the patient’s life
- ‘Problems’ are present when the retold story does not resemble reality
or is “problem-saturated”
- Emphasis on the therapist being a “co-author” or “navigator”, aiding
the patient piece together incongruent life stories (re-authoring)
Regardless of whatever story is raised whether good or bad, the
story that emerges is always reframed into a positive one
- Is similar to Walter and Peller’s framing
- Emphasis on “externalizing and “objectifying” on the problem and not
the person
Acquired by having the therapist probe questions that will explore
how the problem is “kept alive” by “agents”, cultural practices, and
mainstream beliefs
- The therapist portrays themselves as taking an “interested stance”
“establishing therapy as a context for curiosity… a co-operative
endeavor and an inquiry into new possibilities
Walter & Peller
Known for:
Solution Focused
Approach
(SFA)
- Created a path/map for illustrating various routes therapeutic
conversations can take
- Steps include:
i. Pose questions re the goal of their frame (what they want to
achieve in therapy) is to be stated in a positive and not
negative (do not emphasize things to avoid)
ii. Discuss exceptions (situations where the problem is non-
existant)
Goal to identify and build up several instances to remind
the client that ‘the problem’ is not overwhelming nor static,
to show that change breeds change, and that “exceptions
suggest solutions
iii. Discuss hypothetical solutions (what would you do in that
scenario)
The Miracle Question questions pertaining to what they would
do differently if a miracle occurred and the problem disappeared
The On Track Question” questions that create a scenario as if the
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Essential Learning Components in Brief Family Therapy pg 2
person is on track with achieving a goal
- Goal is to help free the client from beliefs and behaviours that maintain
a problem by trying to influence their ways of viewing a problem
(conversion from negative to positive)
NARRATIVES
(Main context for
Michael White &
NFA)
- Main idea is to rework a problem & its relationship to the self with an
emphasis on externalizing the problem, and developing positive ways of
retelling their story
- Narrative therapy is NOT goal oriented therapist does not know
where the client will end up, therapist merely charts conversations on
to “maps”, while the client is in charge
- Does not try to “reframe” a problem, but looks for “doorways” to
“alternative stories” (it isn’t me that’s wrong… it’s… *externalization+)
- Main focus on “rich story development”
- Has the client provide documentation (awards, certificates, degrees,
art, letters, etc.) that contradict negative dominant stories
Lazowski
- Believes in the inclusion of significant others in the therapeutic process
along with the “identified client”
Provides additional input for building the current story
Can function as a source of motivation “recruits” an audience to
praise the client’s progress
ROLES
- Is critical in Transactional Analysis (TA)
The Freeds (Freed
& Freed)
Known for:
Transactional
Analysis (TA)
- TA involves teaching the client/patient to be aware of 3 different states
of ego: “Adult”, “Child”, & “Parent”, and understanding that they may
be acting in any/ all ego states
- Steps include:
i. Learning to differentiate behavior when in a particular state
ii. Therapist provides hints to staying in a desired state (Adult-
Rational) which can be mediated to the individual and taught
as an ideal state to achieve
iii. Clients are taught to identify and avoid “hooks” that cause the
person to enter mind games (e.g., avoid getting into arguments
by ignoring the taunt of others)
Dreikurs
- Asks problematic children direct questions re negative roles (e.g.,
vengeful, power-seeking, attention-getting, and inadequate) they have
chosen for themselves
- Role-playing patterns are broken/targeted at home or at school
PATTERN
INTERRUPTION
- Interrupting one’s own patterns, typically but not limited to,
counterproductive ones
Idea that by changing a person’s behavior, s/he may in turn
influence/change others (e.g., Family dynamic) behaviours
- Main idea behind Social Interactionist Approach (SIA)
Christensen
- Deals mainly with the individual’s way of handling their interaction with
others
- Emphasizes a 2 step process:
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Essential Learning Components in Brief Family Therapy pg 3
Known for:
Social
Interactionist
Approach
(SIA)
i. Suggests that in order to change behavior in other and in effect
their relationship to you, you must first change your own
behavior
ii. To change one’s counterproductive behavior requires one to
change their own behavior
Christensen & Pass (1983) had fearful clients inhibit activity in the face of
fearful cues
Fisch, Weakland,
& Seagal (1991)
- Believed that by allowing clients the opportunity to experience
alternate ways of responding, they can in turn develop some form of
self-control
Dreikurs
Behaviour
Modification
(B. Mod.)
(Perspective)
- B. Mod. Can be used to reward preferred behaviors and to extinguish
through non-reward troublesome behavior, doing so disrupts
maladaptive patterns
- Can be executed in the form of “verbal conditioning” which uses facial
gestures, nods of the head, and brief verbal responses
Wesley Coons
- Suggested that it only takes a mere 20 minutes before positive self-
references, from the therapist using verbal conditioning, to produce
positive emotional effects
SECTION TWO: 13 COMPONENTS OF MLE (FEURESTEIN)
THE TAXONOMY
- Made up of 13 components that are designed and use to create long
lasting cognitive change via MLE
- (Analyzed work will comprise of all highlighted individuals + additional
ones including Feuerstein himself that are conducted on a short-term
basis)
- Feuerstein is a traditionalist who believe in family values, and the
maintenance and strengthening of the family unit
1. INTENTIONALITY & RECIPROCITY
- Perhaps the most important MLE component of the learning in the
family therapeutic process
Feurestein
- Described as a conscious attempt to change the state of the subject
- Indicates that there is a focused effort on the practitioner to work
according to preset, determined goals on behalf of the patient
- Makes the client more aware and ready to attend to relevant cues in
his/her life
Christensen (SIA)
- Described as an attempt to have the client inhibit activity towards
“troubling stimuli
- Clients are taught how to:
Use adaptive ways of dealing with events that are normally
troubling
Better planning & coping skills to change beliefs and perceptions of
the client
- Main goal is to teach the client to be assertive
Freed (TA)
- Achieved by intentionally having children and teens try to stay in a
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Document Summary

Essential learning components in brief family therapy pg 1. Looks at the 4 delivery formats of brief therapy: frames; narratives; Roles; & pattern interruption + feuerstein"s taxonomy of 13 essential components to deliver mle. Argued that family is the most important institutions that either makes or breaks a society, especially a child. One of the first to talk about widespread cognitive remediation for. Is a process of creating a story in the present and future tense, as if it is reality, and the goals have been achieved. Influential in the adaptation of the framing/narrative metaphor. Which attempts to create stories about the patient"s life. Problems" are present when the retold story does not resemble reality or is problem-saturated . Emphasis on the therapist being a co-author or navigator , aiding the patient piece together incongruent life stories (re-authoring) Regardless of whatever story is raised whether good or bad, the story that emerges is always reframed into a positive one.

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