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Inclusion and Identity (3).docx

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PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Chapter 3: Inclusion and Identity Inclusion: the single individual changes from an outsider into an insider by joining a group Collectivism: group members begin to think about the good of the group as a whole rather than what the group provides them Identity: individuals change their conception of who they are to include their group’s qualities as well as their own From Isolation to Inclusion Baumeister & Leary… - All human beings have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and impactful interpersonal relationships Need to Belong: the dispositional tendency to seek out and join with other humans - Evolutionary psychology suggests that instinct resulted from natural selection – allowing for reproductive success - Although people express a desire for privacy, most people spend the majority of the day with others - 87.3 % of Americans reported living with others - 50-80% reported doing things in groups of friends and relatives - There is a difference between being forced to be alone (solitary confinement) and choosing to be alone; isolation can be positive, but prolonged isolation is stressful o Dani’s Story: when a child doesn’t get enough stimulation early in life, the brain may develop differently; that changes all kind of functions, including the ability to have empathy and the ability to form and maintain relationships Abraham Maslow… - Hierarchy of Needs: suggested that certain needs have priority over others, and higher level needs to not come until the lower needs are satisfied - Human needs are organized and arranged from most basic to personal and advanced needs o Physiological: basic needs, hunger, thirst etc… o Safety: safe, secure, stable; world is organized and predictable o Belongingness & Love: need to love and be loved; belong and be accepted, avoid loneliness o Esteem: self-esteem, achievement, independence, respect & recognition o Self-Actualization: live up to one’s fullest potential Pain of Exclusion: most people find protracted periods of social isolation disturbing; as their isolation wears on, they report fear, insomnia, memory lapses, depression, fatigue, and general confusion – also marked by hallucinations and delusions Twenge & Baumeister… “Life Alone” Studies: they first gave participants a basic personality test, and then told them that they were the type to end up alone later in life - Those that were told they would likely live their lives alone displayed a range of negative reactions o More critical of others o More likely to punish others by exposing them to noxious noise levels o Irrational, self-defeating behaviours o Unnecessary risks o Less helpful, more competitive o Scored lower on general cognitive aptitude measures Leary’s Sociometer Theory: self-esteem warns of possible exclusion - The part of the brain that deals with physical pain is activated with emotional pain - People become hyper vigilant; perform extra work, work harder, offer apologies and favours – want to be accepted Ostracism: excluding a person or group of people from a group, usually by ignoring, shunning, or explicitly banishing them – DELIBERATELY Kipling William’s Theory: suggests that people’s initial “reflexive” reaction to exclusion is followed by a more “reflective” stage, during which individuals consider the reasons for their rejection and respond accordingly - People will display one of the five characteristic stress responses: o Freeze, fight, flight, tend, or befriend - IMMINENT THREAT - Fight or Flight Response: a physiological response to stressful events characterized by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (increased heart rate, pupil dilation) that readies the individual to counter the threat (fight) or to escape the threat (flight) - LONG-TERM THREAT - Tend and Befriend Response: an interpersonal response to stressful events characterized by increased nurturing, protective, and supportive behaviours (tending) and by seeking out new connections to other people (befriending) o Women are more likely to tend; and are more likely to blame themselves for their ostracism Acceptance – Rejection Continuum: - Maximum Inclusion: group actively recruits member - Active Inclusion: group welcomes member - Passive Inclusion: group allows member to joining - Ambivalence: group neither accepts nor rejects the individual - Passive Exclusion: group ignores person - Active Exclusion: group avoids person - Maximum Exclusion: group rejects or ostracizes person Forms of Exclusion: - Ignored, avoided, ostracized - Shunning is a form of punishment – minimizing contact with the outcast Forms of Inclusion: - Granted membership, welcomed, recruited Evolution and Inclusion in Groups… Herd Instinct: the idea that humans are instinctively drawn to gather with other humans is not new; humans are inexorably drawn to “the vast human herd”, which “exerts a baneful attraction on those outside it” From Individualism to Collectivism Individualism: a tradition, ideology, or personal outlook that emphasizes the primacy of the individual and his or her rights, independence, and relationships with other individuals - “Me” first - If the group’s goals aren’t compatible with the individual’s goals, then the individual is free to go his/her own way Collectivism: a tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that emphasizes the primacy of the group or community rather than each individual person - Group first; individual belongs to group - The groups rights must be recognized and put a
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